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What is wrong with my WFS-T protocol setup?


So I want to transfer some Vector Layer Features from javascript code to my geoserver and then to postGIS, my code looks like this:

saveStrategy = new OpenLayers.Strategy.Save(); saveStrategy.events.register("success",", alert('Success')); saveStrategy.events.register("failure",", alert('Failure')); stationsMarkersLayer1a = new OpenLayers.Layer.Vector("ODC_Private_Graphics_Data", { strategies: [new OpenLayers.Strategy.BBOX(), saveStrategy], projection: 'EPSG:4326', protocol: new OpenLayers.Protocol.WFS({ version: '1.1.0', url: "file://http://localhost:8080/geoserver/wfs", featurePrefix: 'leoforia', featureNS: 'http://leoforia/application/catalogLayer', featureType: 'no 1 points', geometryName: 'geom', extractAttributes: true, srsName: 'EPSG:4326', isBaseLayer: false, visibility: true , schema: 'http://localhost:8080/geoserver/wfs/DescribeFeatureType?version=1.1.0&;typename=leoforia:ODC_Private_Graphics_Data'}) }); stationsMarkersLayer1a.id = '1' ; stationsMarkersLayer1a.name = 'Blah Blah'; var stationMarkers_1a = new OpenLayers.Feature.Vector( new OpenLayers.Geometry.Point(22.96336,39.35071).transform(fromProjection, toProjection), {description:'Mark1'} , {externalGraphic: 'redMarker.png">openlayers-2 postgis geoserver wfs wfs-t 

PfSense unable to LDAP bind to Active Directory Server

I've been instructed to setup an OpenVPN Server on our local pfSense VM. I've combed over tutorials and guides, netgate, openvpn documentation and I feel I must be missing something.

I've tested the AD Servers ability to bind using ldp.exe* I can also see my various "Authentication Containers" using the [Select a container] button. (Meaning the user I'm using to authenticate to the AD Server is able to authenticate).

However when using Diagnostics>Authentication screen I fail to authenticate and receive the error in my logs: /diag_authentication.php: ERROR! Either LDAP search failed, or multiple users were found.

I feel like my issue is stemming from my entire lack of knowledge on this subject. also in my LDAP Server settings:

LDAP Server Settings on pfSense:

Hostname or IP Address: 10.x.x.x (IP of AD Domain Controller)

Peer Cert Auth: Cert Authority I created for this purpose in pfSense

Search Scope: Entire Subtree

BASE DN: DC=mydomain,DC=local

Auth Containers: CN=UsersDC=mydomain,DC=local

Extended Query: memberOf=CN=VPNUsers,CN=Users,DC=mydomain,DC=local

I really think my extended query is wrong and this is what's causing my problem. At one point i had it working it seemed but I managed to break it again?


Simple routing

Simple routing lets you configure standard DNS records, with no special Route 53 routing such as weighted or latency. With simple routing, you typically route traffic to a single resource, for example, to a web server for your website.

If you choose the simple routing policy in the Route 53 console, you can't create multiple records that have the same name and type, but you can specify multiple values in the same record, such as multiple IP addresses. (If you choose the simple routing policy for an alias record, you can specify only one AWS resource or one record in the current hosted zone.) If you specify multiple values in a record, Route 53 returns all values to the recursive resolver in random order, and the resolver returns the values to the client (such as a web browser) that submitted the DNS query. The client then chooses a value and resubmits the query.

For information about values that you specify when you use the simple routing policy to create records, see the following topics:


Policies

Product End-of-Life (EOL) Policy

Cisco Meraki may find it necessary to discontinue products for a number of reasons, including product line enhancements, market demands, technology innovation, or the products simply mature over time and are replaced by functionally richer products. We have set our end-of-life (EOL) policy to help customers better manage their product end-of-life transition.

When a product reaches EOL, Meraki is committed to communicating important milestones throughout the EOL period. These notifications will include the initial EOL notification, the End of Sale (EOS) announcement, and the End of Support (EOST) dates, as well as other key information pertaining to Cisco Meraki products.

Any products being discontinued will be announced as End of Sale and identified on the Cisco Meraki website up to six months prior to the discontinuation and EOS date (also known as the last order date). On the end of sale date, discontinued hardware products and related device-specific licenses are removed from the price list and are no longer available for purchase. Cisco Meraki typically provides support for a given product for a period of five (5) years after the EOS date. If the discontinued product is not available for replacement or repair of an in-warranty return, Cisco Meraki may replace the discontinued product with functionally equivalent hardware and transfer the remaining license term from the replaced product to the replacement hardware.

Although legacy Cisco Meraki products typically can connect to our cloud-based management software for the entire useful life of the product, following the EOST Date, some things may change, including the following:

  • Cisco Meraki cannot guarantee that legacy hardware products will be able to connect to the management software indefinitely following the EOST Date
  • Cisco Meraki Technical Support may no longer troubleshoot the legacy hardware products
  • Cisco Meraki may no longer issue firmware updates or patches for the legacy products and
  • New software features available for the management software may not be compatible with the legacy hardware functionality or with the firmware running on the legacy hardware.

If either of the first two situations above occurs, then we will use our best efforts to provide the customer with a workable solution for upgrading from the legacy hardware and, failing that, will credit the value of any remaining license time attributable to the legacy hardware to the customer’s Dashboard organization on a prorated basis.

Summary

  • End-of-Sale Announcement: Date of official end-of-sales notice, typically six months prior to the last order date.
  • End-of-Sale (EOS) Date: The last date to order the product through Cisco Meraki point-of-sale outlets. After this date, the product is no longer for sale via any channel.
  • End-of-Support (EOST) Date: The last date a product will be affirmatively supported by Cisco Meraki, typically five years following the EOS Date.

End-of-Life Products

Product Announcement End-of-Sale Date End-of-Support Date
Solar Sep 3, 2010 Dec 31, 2010 Dec 31, 2015
Wall Plug Sep 3, 2010 Dec 31, 2010 Dec 31, 2015
Mini Sep 3, 2010 Dec 31, 2010 Sep 25, 2017
Indoor Mar 3, 2011 Jun 30, 2011 Jun 30, 2016
MX50 Jul 15, 2011 Sep 1, 2011 Sep 1, 2016
MX70 Jan 18, 2012 Mar 31, 2012 Mar 31, 2017
MR11 May 29, 2012 Aug 30, 2012 Aug 30, 2017
MR14 May 29, 2012 Aug 30, 2012 Aug 30, 2017
OD2 Jul 26, 2012 Oct 30, 2012 Oct 30, 2017
MR58 Jul 26, 2012 Oct 30, 2012 Oct 30, 2017
MX90 Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
MS22 Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
MS22P Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
MS42 Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
MS42P Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
SFP/SFP+ Accessories Nov 5, 2013 Apr 26, 2014 Apr 26, 2021
MS22/P and MS42/P Licenses Jan 6, 2014 Jan 25, 2014 N/A
MR16 Feb 27, 2014 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2021
MR24 Feb 27, 2014 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2021
802.3af PoE Injector Feb 27, 2014 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2021
Systems Manager Enterprise Support License Sep 22, 2014 Sep 22, 2014 End of customer’s license
ANT-11 Jan 12, 2015 Apr 24, 2015 Apr 24, 2022
ANT-13 Jan 12, 2015 Apr 24, 2015 Apr 24, 2022
MX60 Jul 10, 2015 Oct 24, 2015 Oct 24, 2022
MX60W Jul 10, 2015 Oct 24, 2015 Oct 24, 2022
MR12 Jul 27, 2015 Oct 24, 2015 Oct 24, 2022
MS320 & MS420 power supplies and fans Nov 16, 2015 Nov 16, 2015 Nov 16, 2022
MX80 Jan 26, 2016 Aug 30, 2016 Aug 30, 2023
MR26 Feb 9, 2016 May 9, 2016 May 9, 2023
AC-MR-1-XX Feb 9, 2016 May 9, 2016 May 9, 2023
MR34 Aug 1, 2016 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2023
MS420 Aug 1, 2016 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2023
MR18 Dec 8, 2016 Feb 13, 2017 Mar 31, 2024
MS320 Series Dec 8, 2016 Mar 31, 2017 Mar 31, 2024
MR32 Jan 18, 2017 Apr 30, 2017 Jul 31, 2024
MR72 Mar 7, 2017 Apr 30, 2017 Apr 30, 2024
MS220 Series Mar 16, 2017 Jul 29, 2017 Jul 29, 2024
MR66 Jun 7, 2017 Jun 9, 2017 Jun 9, 2024
MR62 Aug 15, 2017 Nov 15, 2017 Nov 15, 2024
ANT-10 Sep 6, 2017 Sep 11, 2017 Sep 11, 2024
MS220-8 Jan 9, 2018 Jul 28, 2018 Jul 28, 2025
MX400 Feb 28, 2018 May 20, 2018 May 20, 2025
MX600 Feb 28, 2018 May 20, 2018 May 20, 2025
Z1 Apr 27, 2018 July 27, 2018 July 27, 2025
MC74 Sep 27, 2018 Oct 1, 2018 Apr 1, 2019
MX65 Nov 20, 2018 May 28, 2019 May 28, 2026
MV21 and MV71 Mar 19, 2019 Jun 19, 2019 Jun 19, 2026
GR licenses Sep 5, 2019 Oct 5, 2019 N/A
MR55 Aug 25, 2020 Aug 25, 2020 Aug 1, 2028
VMX100 Sep 29, 2020 Dec 22, 2020 Dec 22, 2027
MR33 Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR33-HW Jan 27, 2021 May 7, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR42/42E Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR45 Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR52 Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR53/53E Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR53-HW Jan 27, 2021 May 7, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR74 Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR84 Jan 27, 2021 Jul 21, 2021 Jul 21, 2026
MR84-HW Jan 27, 2021 May 7, 2021 Jul 21, 2026

In some limited cases, Cisco Meraki may also find it necessary to discontinue certain features. For more information, see the WAN Optimization feature retirement notice.

Return Policy and Requesting a RMA

Return policy terms may vary by region. Please refer to the Regional Return Policies section for region-specific terms.

Warranty Returns

Cisco Meraki stands behind its products. Cisco Meraki hardware products come with the following warranty periods:

*Original and replacement modular power supply units and fans for MS and MX Products included in lifetime warranty.

**Product lifetime ends concurrently with product End-of-Support (EOST) Date as described in Cisco Meraki's End of Life (EOL) Policy.

If you are experiencing hardware issues, for any product under warranty (as described above), please contact Cisco Meraki support by logging in to dashboard (Help > Get help) or by calling us.

To request a return materials authorization (RMA), please complete the RMA request form in the Meraki dashboard. If your RMA request is approved, Cisco Meraki will email you an RMA number and a return shipping label free of charge. We will ship replacement units within five business days of receiving your defective units. If no trouble is found, we will contact you before taking further action.

If you require advance replacement, please call Cisco Meraki technical support. Advance replacement orders will ship within 1 business day.

Additional information about Cisco Meraki’s hardware warranty can be found in Cisco Meraki’s End Customer Agreement.

Meraki Now

If you require replacement of Meraki products covered by Meraki Now services, please call Meraki technical support and request Meraki Now advance replacement. Please include the Meraki Now service tier and affected device serial number (SN) with your request.

Product Trial Returns

If you would like to return units from a product trial, please go to your product trial webpage (using the link your rep provided you with) and go to the returns tab to fill out the RMA request form. If your trial hardware was shipped to the US, Canada, or an EU member country you will also be able to print out a return shipping label and ship the product back to Cisco Meraki at no charge to you.

Refund Requests

If you are dissatisfied with your Cisco Meraki purchase for any reason, you may return your order for a full refund. All returns must meet the following criteria:

  1. You purchased the product through an authorized Cisco Meraki reseller or direct from Cisco Meraki
  2. You are the original purchaser of the product
  3. You submit your refund request within 30 days of purchase
  4. The product is in new condition, including all accessories in the original packaging

To request a refund, please complete our RMA request form.

If your refund request is approved, Cisco Meraki will email you an RMA number. In order for the refund to be accepted and processed, Meraki must receive the hardware you are returning no later than 30 days following the date the RMA number is issued. Once we have received and inspected the units, we will process your return. If you purchased through a Cisco Meraki reseller, your refund will be issued by that reseller. If you purchased directly from Cisco Meraki, we will issue a refund, typically within 15 days of receiving the return. (If you paid by credit card we will credit the original credit card. If you paid by any other method, we will send you a check.)

From time to time Cisco Meraki offers special refund terms. If your return is covered by special terms, please reference those terms on your RMA request.

Please contact Cisco Meraki directly for all returns, including product purchased through distributors or resellers.

Regional Return Policies

Shipment Preparation

  • Please return units in their entirety. That is, include all power supplies, antennas, and other components along with the original product box.
  • Please use the original shipping carton and packaging material. If this is not possible, use another shipping carton with padding to protect the units from damage during shipping, and remove ALL inappropriate and/or inapplicable label(s). DO NOT ship a product without a carton.
  • The customer will be charged for product that is damaged due to insufficient packaging.
  • Once you have received your RMA number from Cisco Meraki via email, write this RMA number in large letters on the exterior of the shipping carton. Shipments to Cisco Meraki without an RMA approval will not be processed.
  • If Cisco Meraki approves your RMA request, you will receive a confirmation email containing an RMA number within two business days. The address to which the product should be sent will also be included in that email.
  • Cisco Meraki will provide a pre-paid return shipping label for warranty replacement return shipments. Cisco Meraki will also provide a pre-paid return shipping label for free trial return shipments from US (including Puerto Rico), any EU member country, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. For all other returns it is your responsibility to coordinate and pay for return shipping back to Cisco Meraki using the carrier of your choice. Cisco Meraki recommends that the return package has a tracking number and is insured for the proper value of its contents. Cisco Meraki is not responsible for packages lost by carriers.

Privacy Policy

Last Updated: January 26, 2017

Meraki is adopting the Cisco Online Privacy Statement, effective January 26, 2017. For existing customers, this will be effective on February 9, 2017. Please click here to see the Cisco Online Privacy Statement. Please review the FAQs below about this transition.

Q. Why is Meraki making this change?
A. This change from the Meraki Privacy Policy to the Cisco Online Privacy Statement is part of the continued integration of the Meraki business into Cisco and certification under the EU-US Privacy Shield.

Q. When will the change to Cisco Online Privacy Statement become effective?
A. For existing Meraki Customers, the change will become effective on February 9, 2017. For new customers, the change is effective immediately.

Q. Is my personal information less protected by this change to the Cisco Online Privacy Statement than it was under the Meraki Privacy Policy?
A. No, your personal information will continue to be treated and protected in a manner consistent with the treatment described in the Meraki Privacy Policy. No additional sharing or use of your personal data will occur because of this change.

Q. Does Meraki use Cookies and other Web Technologies?
A. Like many websites and web-based solutions, Meraki and Cisco use automatic data collection tools, such as cookies, embedded web links, and web beacons. You can read more about our use of cookies and other web technologies on the Cisco Online Privacy Statement. To update your cookie preferences, you can visit the Cisco Cookie Consent Manager available on the Cisco Online Privacy Statement.

Q. How can I get more information about the Cisco Online Privacy Statement?
A. You can contact Meraki by sending an email to [email protected] or writing to:

Meraki, LLC
500 Terry François Blvd
San Francisco, CA 94158
Attn: Legal

You can contact Cisco by writing to:

Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
Attn: Chief Privacy Officer


Q. How do I object to my personal information being processed under the Cisco Online Privacy Statement?
A. You can contact Meraki by sending an email to [email protected] or writing to:

Meraki, LLC
500 Terry François Blvd
San Francisco, CA 94158
Attn: Legal

You can contact Cisco by writing to:

Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
Attn: Chief Privacy Officer


Q. Will I now receive marketing from Cisco not related to Meraki Products and Services?
A. This update does not change your marketing or communication preferences. You will receive marketing based on the preferences you have previously stated. You can unsubscribe from marketing messages from Cisco or Meraki at any time either by following the instructions contained within the email or emailing us a [email protected] (for messages from Cisco) or [email protected] for messaged from Meraki.

Previous Privacy Policy

This privacy policy (this "Policy") describes the collection of personal information and certain other information by Meraki, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly owned subsidiary of Cisco Systems, Inc. ("Meraki," "we," or "us") from users of our Web site at meraki.cisco.com (the "Website"), as well as all applications, widgets, software, tools, and other services provided by us and on which a link to this Policy is displayed (collectively, together with the Website, our "Services"). This Policy also describes our use and disclosure of such information. By using our Services, you consent to the collection, use, and disclosure of information in accordance with this Policy. This Policy is incorporated by reference into the Meraki Terms of Use and the Meraki End Customer Agreement and is subject to the provisions of the Meraki Terms of Use and the Meraki End Customer Agreement. The terms "you," "your," and "user" refer to the user visiting the Website or accessing or using the Services. Other capitalized terms used but not defined in this Privacy Policy have the meanings given to them in the Terms of Use.

Meraki has received TRUSTe's Privacy Seal signifying that this privacy policy and our practices have been reviewed for compliance with the TRUSTe program viewable on the validation page available by clicking the TRUSTe seal.

If you have an unresolved privacy or data use concern that we have not addressed satisfactorily, please contact TRUSTe here.

Please click here for fax and postal mail information. TRUSTe's Dispute Resolution process is only available in English.

The TRUSTe certification covers our collection, use and disclosure of information we collect through our Services. The use of information collected through our Services shall be limited to the purpose of providing the service for which the customer has engaged Meraki.

Meraki complies with the U.S. – E.U. Safe Harbor framework and the U.S. - Swiss Safe Harbor framework as set forth by the U.S. Department of Commerce regarding the collection, use, and retention of personal data from European Union member countries and Switzerland. Meraki has certified that it adheres to the Safe Harbor Privacy Principles of notice, choice, onward transfer, security, data integrity, access, and enforcement. To learn more about the Safe Harbor program, and to view Meraki’s certification included under Cisco Systems Inc.’s company certification, please visit http://www.export.gov/safeharbor

Personal Information

"Personal Information," as used in this Policy, is information that specifically identifies an individual, such as an individual's name, address, telephone number, or e-mail address. Personal Information also includes information, such as demographic information (e.g., date of birth, gender, geographic area, and preferences), when any of this information is linked to Personal Information that identifies that individual.

Personal Information does not include "aggregate" or other non-personally identifiable information. Aggregate information is information that we collect about a group or category of products, services, or users that is not personally identifiable or from which individual identities are removed. We may use and disclose aggregate information, and other non-personally identifiable information, for various purposes at our sole discretion and without notice or liability to you.

Collection of Information

Collection of Voluntarily-Provided Information

We collect Personal Information that our users provide to us in a variety of ways on our Services. These include the following:

E-mail Newsletters. We may offer e-mail newsletters from time to time on our Services. If you sign up to receive a newsletter from us, we collect your e-mail address.

User Accounts and Profiles. Our Services may give you the ability to register for an account or to create and update a user profile. If we offer user account or profile functionality on the Services, we will collect the Personal Information that you provide to us in the course of registering for an account or creating or updating a user account or profile. This information may include, for example, name, postal address, telephone number, e-mail address, and related demographic information about you. We may indicate that some Personal Information is required for you to register for the account or to create the profile, while some is optional.

Logging into Networks. Certain networks using our Services may require users to establish or use login credentials. In connection with supporting this log-on functionality, we may collect information such as email addresses, telephone numbers, or user or administrator-created usernames, along with user-created or administrator-created passwords, to facilitate such log-on functionality and otherwise to provide our Services.

Correspondence. If you contact us by e-mail, using a contact form on the Services, or by other means, we collect the Personal Information contained within, and associated with, your correspondence.

Contests and Sweepstakes. We and other business partners may conduct or sponsor special contests, sweepstakes, and other promotions that users may enter or otherwise participate in on our Services or otherwise. Certain of these promotions may be co-branded with one of our advertisers or other business partners. In these instances, the collection of your Personal Information may occur directly by the third-party partner on its website or other online service and may be shared with us. The promotion will state the privacy policy or policies governing the collection of such personal information.

Testimonials. We display testimonials of satisfied customers on our site in addition to other endorsements. With your consent we may post your testimonial along with your name.

Information Related to Data Collected for our Customers. Meraki collects information under the direction of its customers, and has no direct relationship with the individuals whose personal data it processes. If you are an individual who makes use of services offered by one of our customers and would no longer like to be contacted by that customer, please contact the customer that you interact with directly. We may transfer personal information to companies that help us provide our Services. Transfers to subsequent third parties are covered by the service agreements with our customers.

Passive Information Collection

When you use or visit our Services, some information is collected automatically. For example, when you access our Services, we automatically collect your browser’s Internet Protocol (IP) address, your browser type, the nature of the device from which you are visiting the Services (e.g., a personal computer or a mobile device), identifiers for any handheld or mobile device that you may be using, the Web site that you visited immediately prior to accessing any Web-based Services, the actions you take on our Services, and the content, features, and activities that you access and engage with on our Services. We also may collect information regarding your interaction with e-mail messages from Meraki, such as whether you opened, clicked on, or forwarded a message.

We may collect this information passively using technologies such as standard server logs, cookies, and clear GIFs (also known as “Web beacons”). We use passively-collected information to administer, operate, maintain and improve our Services and our other services and systems and to provide content that is tailored to you.

If we link or associate any information gathered through passive means with Personal Information, or if applicable laws require us to treat any information gathered through passive means as Personal Information, we treat the combined information as Personal Information under this Policy. Otherwise, we use and disclose information collected by passive means in aggregate form or otherwise in a non-personally identifiable form. Please be aware that in the course of your use of the Services, websites or other services provided by third parties ("Third-Party Services"), including marketing or website optimization vendors, may set cookies on your hard drive or use other means of passively collecting information about your use of their Third-Party Services or other services or content. To do this, they may use first-party cookies (which are set by the same domain your browser is receiving data from) or third-party cookies (which are set by a different domain). Meraki also may make non-personally identifiable information available to Third-Party Services, and these Third-Party Services may collect such information, to assist such parties in understanding our users’ activities and usage patterns on the Services. If desired, you may use the Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on to opt-out of having information collected by Google Analytics.

We do not have access to, or control over, the actions of Third-Party Services. Each provider of Third-Party Services uses information that it collects in accordance with its own privacy and security policies.

Additionally, please be aware that Google and other third-party vendors may place or recognize one or more unique cookies on your computer when you use the Services, and may record information to these cookies based upon your activities on our Services and on third-party websites and other Third-Party Services. Google and these other third-party vendors may use information about those activities to inform, optimize, and serve advertisements. In particular, we may use Google and other third-party vendors to engage in “remarketing,” in which advertisements you see on third-party websites and services may be based on your prior visits to our Services.

To learn more about these practices, and to opt-out from Google’s and other vendors’ use of information collected on the Services through cookies for advertising purposes, you may visit Google’s Ads Preferences Manager, TRUSTe's Preference Manager, or the Network Advertising Initiative opt-out page. Please note that opting-out will not prevent advertisements from being served to you on the Internet it will only result in advertisements that utilize cookies to serve advertisements on the specified advertising networks from which you opt-out no longer being targeted. We are not responsible for the activities of other parties that may not comply with your opt-out requests.

We also use Google Conversion Tracking, which tracks whether users engage in certain activities (e.g., filling out a form to receive more information about our products or services) after they view one of our advertisements on a Third-Party Service. Google uses cookies to track conversions and to report that information to us.

Finally, please also be aware that we use the Google Maps API as a source of maps, geographic data, and geolocation information for purposes of providing location-based information regarding terminal devices connected to networks managed by our Services and for providing related reporting and analysis. Google may collect information, including personal information, from those who view content provided through the Google Maps API, and Google handles such information in accordance with the Google Privacy Policy.

Network Usage Information Collected by Our Services

Some of our Services collect information from terminal devices connected to networks that are managed by those Services. Those Services also collect information regarding the performance of, and certain other information regarding, such networks. This information includes, for example, MAC address, device type, operating system, geolocation information, and network traffic information (e.g., hostnames, protocols, port numbers, and IP addresses). This information is made available to administrators of networks managed by our Services through an online interface that we call the “dashboard”. Additionally, if a Meraki customer elects to use our device management tool currently known as Systems Manager ("Systems Manager") and installs its software on, or configures the profile of, a mobile device or other device (e.g., a laptop computer) managed by Systems Manager, the customer or Meraki may undertake certain actions on the device, such as the following: (i) list, access, copy, move, and delete files (ii) track and record device location over time (iii) take and record screenshots (iv) manage the device through remote desktop functionality (v) set and enforce policies and (vi) install/remove apps. Finally, for devices with Systems Manager installed or devices that utilize Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, we transmit certain geolocation information about those devices and the network(s) on which they are running to Google, which provides us with related geolocation information that we store and make available to network administrators through our dashboard as described above in this paragraph. Google handles the information that we provide to it in accordance with the Google Privacy Policy.

Information from Other Sources

We may receive information about you, including Personal Information, from affiliated and unaffiliated third parties, and may combine this information with other Personal Information we maintain about you in order to ensure we have accurate information. If we do so, this Policy governs any combined information that we maintain in personally identifiable format.

Use of Information

We use Personal Information and other information we collect to do any of the following: provide services to our customers provide information and otherwise respond to your requests, including sales inquiries, email requests, and shipping requests enhance, improve, operate, maintain, and debug the Website, our other Services, and our other programs, services, Web sites, and systems improve the effectiveness of our Website as a marketing tool and optimize the performance of the Website and our other Services prevent fraudulent use of our Services and other systems to prevent or take action against activities that are, or may be, in violation of the Meraki End Customer Agreement, the Meraki Terms of Use, or applicable law to tailor content and other aspects of your experience on and in connection with the Services maintain a record of our dealings with you for other administrative purposes and for any other purposes that we may disclose to you at the point at which we request your Personal Information, and pursuant to your consent.

We may also use Personal Information you provide to contact you regarding products, services, and offers, both from ourselves and third parties, that we believe you may find of interest. We allow you to opt-out from receiving marketing communications from us as described in the “Choice” section below.

Disclosure of Information

Except as described in this Policy, we will not disclose your Personal Information that we collect on the Services to third parties without your consent. We may disclose information to third parties if you consent to us doing so, as well as in the following circumstances:

We may disclose Personal Information to third-party service providers (e.g., payment processing and data storage and processing facilities) that assist us in our work. We limit the Personal Information provided to these service providers to that which is reasonably necessary for them to perform their functions, and we require them to agree to maintain the confidentiality of such Personal Information.

Information about our users, including Personal Information, may be disclosed and otherwise transferred to an acquirer, successor, or assignee as part of any merger, acquisition, debt financing, sale of company assets, or similar transaction, as well as in the event of an insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership in which Personal Information is transferred to one or more third parties as one of our business assets.

We may disclose Personal Information and other information to our parent company and to other corporate affiliates of ours. These affiliated third-party companies may use and disclose Personal Information and other information that we disclose to them in accordance with their privacy policies and procedures.

We may disclose Personal Information and other information to channel partners, such as resellers, of ours. These third parties may use such Personal Information and other information that we disclose to them for purposes such as marketing our products and services to you.

We also may disclose Personal Information and other information if we believe that doing so is legally required or is in our interest to protect our property or other legal rights (including, but not limited to, enforcement of our agreements) or the rights or property of others, or otherwise to help protect the safety or security of our Services or other users of the Services.

Choices Regarding Promotional Communications

If you receive commercial e-mail from us, you may unsubscribe at any time by following the instructions contained within the e-mail. You may also opt-out from receiving commercial e-mail from us, and any other promotional communications that we may send to you from time to time (e.g., by postal mail) by sending your request to us by e-mail at [email protected] or by writing to us at the address given at the end of this policy. Additionally, if we offer user account functionality on the Services, we may allow you to view and modify settings relating to the nature and frequency of promotional communications that you receive from us.

Please be aware that if you opt-out of receiving commercial e-mail from us, it may take up to ten business days for us to process your opt-out request, and you may receive commercial e-mail from us during that period. Additionally, even after you opt-out from receiving commercial messages from us, you will continue to receive administrative messages from us regarding our Services.

Your California Privacy Rights

You may choose to opt-out of the sharing of your personal information with third parties for their direct marketing purposes at any time by e-mailing us at [email protected] Once we receive your opt-out request, we will no longer disclose your Personal Information to third-parties for their direct marketing purposes. Please be aware that this opt-out does not prohibit disclosures of Personal Information or other information made for non-direct marketing purposes.

If we offer the ability to create user accounts or profiles on our Services, you may have the ability to access and update certain categories of Personal Information that you provide to us by logging in to your account and accessing your account settings. If you wish to access, amend, or delete any other Personal Information we hold about you, you may contact us at [email protected]

If you request access to your account including deletion requests on any of our Services (via a user settings page, by e-mail, or otherwise) including requests to remove testimonials that contain Personal Information, we will respond to your access requests within 30 days. Please note that we may need to retain some of your Personal Information in order to satisfy our legal obligations, or where we reasonably believe that we have a legitimate reason to do so.

Please note that Meraki has no direct relationship with the individuals whose personal data we process on behalf of our customers. An individual who seeks access, or who seeks to correct, amend, or delete inaccurate data should direct his or her query to our customer (the data controller). If the customer requests Meraki to remove the data, we will respond to their request within 30 days.

We will retain personal data we process on behalf of our customers for as long as needed to provide services to our customer. Meraki will retain and use this personal information as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, and enforce our agreements.

The Services may contain links to other Web sites or other Third-Party Services that we do not own or operate. If you choose to visit or use any Third-Party Services or products or services available on or through such Third-Party Services, please be aware that this Policy will not apply to your activities or any information you disclose while using those Third-Party Services or any products or services available on or through such Third-Party Services. We are not responsible for the privacy practices of these Third-Party Services or any products or services on or through them. Additionally, the Services may contain links to Web sites and services that we operate but that are governed by different privacy policies. We encourage you to carefully review the privacy policies applicable to any Web site or service you visit other than the Services before providing any Personal Information on them.

Children’s safety is important to us, and we encourage parents and guardians to take an active interest in the online activities of their children. Our Services are not directed to children under the age of 13, and we do not knowingly collect Personal Information from children under the age of 13 without obtaining parental consent. If we learn that we have collected Personal Information from a child under the age of 13 on our Services, we will delete that information as quickly as possible. If you believe that we may have collected any such Personal Information on our Services, please notify us at [email protected]

International Visitors

Many of our servers and data centers are located in the United States. If you choose to use the Services from outside the U.S., then you should know that you may be transferring your Personal Information outside of your region and into the U.S. for storage and processing. By providing your Personal Information to us through your use of the Service, you agree to that transfer, storage, and processing in the U.S. Also, we may transfer your data from the U.S. to other countries or regions in connection with storage and processing of data, fulfilling your requests, and operating the Services. You should know that each region can have its own privacy and data security laws, some of which may be less stringent as compared to those of your own region.

We use certain security measures in an effort to protect Personal Information from accidental loss, disclosure, misuse, and destruction. The security of your Personal Information and our customers’ information is important to us. When you enter sensitive information (such as login credentials) we encrypt the transmission of that information using secure socket layer technology (SSL). Please be aware, however, that no data security measures can be guaranteed to be completely effective. Consequently, we cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information that you provide to us. You transmit information to us at your own risk.

If Meraki learns of a security systems breach, then we may attempt to notify you electronically so that you can take appropriate protective steps. Meraki may post a notice through the Services if a security breach occurs. Depending on where you live, you may have a legal right to receive notice of a security breach in writing. To receive a free written notice of a security breach, you should notify us at [email protected]

Updates to this Policy

We may occasionally update this Policy. When we do, we will post the updated Policy and revise the “last updated” date at the beginning of the Policy. If we change this Policy in a manner that materially alters your rights or obligations under this Policy, we will use reasonable efforts to notify you of the change. For example, we may send a message to your email address, if we have one on file, or generate a pop-up or similar notification when you access the Service for the first time after such material changes are made. We encourage you to periodically review this Policy to stay informed about how we collect, use, and disclose Personal Information. Your continued use of the Services after the revised Policy has become effective indicates that you have read, understood and agreed to the current version of this Policy.

Contacting Us

If you have any questions or comments about this Policy, please contact us using the following contact information:

Meraki, LLC
500 Terry François Blvd
San Francisco, CA 94158
[email protected]

Website Terms of Use

Last Updated: March 29, 2013

Welcome to www.meraki.com (the "Site"), owned and operated by Meraki, LLC ("Meraki") a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cisco Systems, Inc. (" Cisco"). By using the Site in any way, including any service made available at the Site, you are agreeing to comply with and to be bound by these Terms of Use and all rules, policies and disclaimers posted on the Site or about which you are notified (collectively, " Terms"). Please review these Terms carefully before using the Site. By using the Site, you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you do not agree with all of the Terms, do not use the Site.

The terms "you," "your," and "yours" refer to you, the user of the Site. The terms "Meraki," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Meraki, LLC.

Changes to the Terms

We may periodically make changes to these Terms, in our sole discretion. When we do, we will update the "Last Updated" date above. It is your responsibility to review the most recent version of these Terms and remain informed of any changes. You agree that your continued use of the Site after the effective date of any changes will constitute your acceptance of the changed Terms for your continued use.

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You must register for an account to use certain Meraki services. Your registration for and use of an account will be governed by the Meraki End Customer Agreement, available at http://www.meraki.com/support/#policies:eca, and any other applicable agreement related to your use of particular Meraki software and products.

Changes to the Site

We reserve the right to modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, all or a part of the Site without notice. We will not be liable to you or to any third party for any modification, suspension, or discontinuance of the Site.

Limited License

Subject to these Terms, Meraki grants you a limited, revocable license to access and use the Site solely to support your use of Meraki products and services within your organization as intended by Meraki. No other use of the Site is authorized.

Software License

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Meraki, the Meraki Logo, Meraki Dashboard, Stumbler, and Mapper are among the trademarks of Meraki or its affiliates.

Disclosure Forward-Looking Statements

Some of the information on this Site may contain projections or other forward-looking statements regarding future events or the future financial performance of Meraki and/or Cisco. We wish to caution you that these statements are only predictions and that actual events or results may differ materially. We refer you to the documents Cisco files from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, specifically, CiscoÕs most recent Form 10-K, Form 10-Q, and Form 10-Q/A. These documents contain and identify important factors that could cause the actual results to differ materially from those contained in our projections or forward-looking statements, including, among others, potential fluctuations in quarterly results, dependence on new product development rapid technological and market change, acquisition strategy, manufacturing risks, risks associated with Internet infrastructure, volatility of stock price, financial risk management, and future growth subject to risks.

Privacy Policy

Our Privacy Policy (available at http://www.meraki.com/support/#policies:privacy) is hereby incorporated into these Terms by reference.Please read the Privacy Policy carefully for information relating to our collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal information, including registration and other information about you that we collect through the Site.

Links and Third Party Content

The Site may contain links to third party products, services, and websites. We exercise no control over any third party products, services, and websites and we are not responsible for their performance, do not endorse them, and are not responsible or liable for any content, advertising, or other materials available through the third party products, services, and websites. We are not responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused to you by your use of or reliance on any goods or services available through the third party products, services, and websites.

Additionally, if you follow a link or otherwise navigate away from the Site, please be aware that these Terms, including the Privacy Policy, will no longer govern. You should review the applicable terms and policies, including privacy and data gathering practices, of any third party websites to which you navigate to from the Site.

From time to time, we may offer promotions to Site visitors or registered Site users. To be eligible for a promotion, you must, for the duration of the promotion, reside in a jurisdiction in which the promotion is lawful. If you take part in any promotion, you agree to be bound by the specific promotion rules and by the decisions of Meraki and our designees, which are final in all matters relating to any promotion. Any awards provided by us or our sponsors or partners are at our sole discretion. We and our designees reserve the right to disqualify any entrant or winner in our absolute discretion without notice. Any applicable taxes on any award are the sole responsibility of each winner.

Meraki may provide you with a mechanism to provide feedback, suggestions, and ideas about the Site or us ("Feedback"). You agree that we may, in our sole discretion, use the Feedback you provide in any way, including in future modifications to the Site, our products, or services. You hereby grant us a perpetual, worldwide, fully transferable, irrevocable, royalty-free license to use, reproduce, modify, create derivative works from, distribute, and display the Feedback in any manner for any purpose.

Disclaimer of Warranties

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Limitation of Liability

MERAKI WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU OR TO ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL, USE, DATA OR OTHER INTANGIBLE LOSSES (EVEN IF MERAKI HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF THESE DAMAGES), RESULTING FROM YOUR USE OF THE SITE AND SITE CONTENT. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL MERAKIÕS TOTAL LIABILITY OF ALL KINDS ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO YOUR USE OF THE SITE OR SITE CONTENT (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTY CLAIMS), REGARDLESS OF THE FORUM AND REGARDLESS OF WHETHER ANY ACTION OR CLAIM IS BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE, EXCEED $50. BECAUSE SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU, IN WHICH CASE MERAKIÕS LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED BY APPLICABLE LAW.

You will indemnify and hold Meraki, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, agents, and employees, harmless from any costs, damages, expenses, and liability caused by your use of the Site or Site Content, your submission of Feedback, your violation of these Terms, or your violation of any rights of a third party through use of the Site or Site Content.

Legal Notices

These Terms will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California without regard to principles of conflicts of law. You submit to the jurisdiction of the federal or state courts of or located in Santa Clara County, California, with respect to any action or proceeding arising out of or in any way related to these Terms, and you hereby waive any venue or other objection which you may have to any such action or proceeding being brought in the federal or state courts of in Santa Clara County, California.

No failure or delay by us in exercising any right under these Terms will constitute a waiver of that right. If any portion of these Terms is held invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such portion will be deemed to be of no force or effect, and these Terms will be construed as if such portion had not been included. The headings used in these Terms are for convenience of reference only and do not affect the meaning or construction of these Terms.

Contacting Meraki

If you have any questions or concerns about the Site or these Terms, please send us a thorough description by email to [email protected], or write to us at:

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Cisco Meraki Shipping Policy

Order Number

You will receive an email from [email protected] to the email listed in the purchase order once the order is accepted. This contains your order number, so look for this email and retain your order number for your records.

Order Status

Once your order ships you will receive an email notification to the email listed in your Purchase Order from Cisco Meraki with tracking number for the shipment. You may want to double check in your bulk email folder in case you do not receive this email within 48 hours of the time you placed the order.

Order Processing Time

All orders will generally be processed the same day and shipped within 2 business days. Delays may occur if there are special shipping requests or missing information. If you have not received notification of shipment within 3 business days, please check for an email from [email protected] as there is likely a problem with your order.

Shipment is dependent on available stock. While stock outs are rare, they can happen. If you have a time sensitive order you can check availability with your sales representative.

Canceling or Modifying an Order:

International Power Adapters:

Cisco Meraki offers 4 different plug types for the power adapters that ship with the routers. All power adapters accept power input 100-240 V 50/60 Hz AC. There are 4 variations of input plug types as follows.

Cisco Meraki designation Description
US Type A 2 pin
EU Type C Europlug, CEE 7/16 2 pin
UK Type G British 3 pin, ungrounded
AU Type I Australian/New Zealand 2 pin

International Certifications

As Cisco Meraki grows, so too will the list of countries in which Cisco Meraki product is certified. Cisco Meraki currently has product certified in over 45 countries worldwide. If you have specific questions regarding Cisco Meraki certifications, please contact your sales representative.

Tax/VAT information

In accordance with applicable law, Cisco Meraki collects tax/VAT in regions where Cisco Meraki has a presence. Sales tax or VAT will be applied to the total amount of the order and is based on the shipment's destination state and local sales tax or VAT rates.

Placing a Sales Tax-Exempt Order for Delivery in the United States

Qualified groups and individuals may place a sales tax-exempt order once we have your tax-exempt certificate on file. Fax or email a copy of your state- or federal government-issued certificate to 415-632-5899. Tax-exempt orders have to be made by contacting [email protected]

North America Delivery Times and Shipping Information

US Shipping Methods

Cisco Meraki will ship using UPS if product is shipped on Cisco Meraki’s account. The most common methods used are UPS Ground, UPS 3 Day, UPS 2 Day, UPS Overnight, UPS Overnight Early AM and UPS Overnight Saturday Delivery.

Cisco Meraki is capable of shipping using most carriers and methods if the customer is shipping on a customer’s account.

US Delivery Times

Below is the UPS Ground map.

NOTE: Business Days are Monday through Friday, excluding holidays observed by UPS. Expedited shipments within the US using an expedited method will generally arrive in 1-3 business days.

Canada Shipping Methods

Cisco Meraki will ship to Canada using either UPS Ground or Expedited services. Cisco Meraki will ship any UPS or FedEx shipment to Canada using a paperless process. The commercial invoice is therefore electronic and will not be included in the shipment.

Cisco Meraki has the ability to ship using most carriers if shipping on the customer’s account. If Cisco Meraki has any concerns or issues with the carrier you selected you will be contacted.

Canada Delivery Times

Ground service to Canada will generally arrive in 2-7 business days.* Cisco Meraki ships to Canada from California, so generally the further east a shipment has to travel, the longer the transit time. Expedited shipments to Canada using an expedited method will generally arrive in 1-3 business days.*

Cisco Meraki will only send shipments to Canada using EXW (Ex Works) incoterms. That means the customer will be the importer of record and will be responsible of all duties, taxes/VAT, and brokerage fees. Contact your local customs office for details.

*Excludes any issues that could arise with customs. It is very rare that Cisco Meraki experiences any issues with Canadian customs.

Mexico Shipping Methods

Cisco Meraki can ship to Mexico using expedited services.

Cisco Meraki will ship any UPS or FedEx shipment to Mexico using a paperless process. The commercial invoice is therefore electronic and will not be included in the shipment.

Cisco Meraki has the ability to ship using most carriers if shipping on the customer’s account. If Cisco Meraki has any concerns or issues with the carrier you selected you will be contacted.

Mexico Delivery Times

Expedited shipments to Mexico using an expedited method will generally arrive in 2-5 business days. Excludes any issues that could arise with customs. It is very rare that Cisco Meraki experiences any issues with Mexican customs.

Cisco Meraki will only send shipments to Mexico using EXW (Ex Works) incoterms. That means the customer will be the importer of record and will be responsible of all duties, taxes/VAT, and brokerage fees. Contact your local customs office for details.

Cisco Meraki cannot deliver to a P.O. Box in the United States, Mexico, or Canada. Customers that place an order with a P.O. Box delivery address will be contacted for an alternative address.

Other questions about shipping, please contact [email protected]

Europe Delivery Times and Shipping Information

European Shipping Methods

Cisco Meraki will ship using UPS if product is shipped on Cisco Meraki’s account. The most common methods used are UPS Standard and UPS Expedited.

Cisco Meraki is capable of shipping using most carriers and methods if the customer is shipping on a customer’s account.

European Delivery Times

Expedited shipments will generally arrive at their destination in 1-3 business days.

For most addresses, PO Boxes are not acceptable delivery addresses. If your shipping address must include a PO Box Cisco Meraki cannot guarantee delivery.

Shipping Options

Cisco Meraki will only send Europe shipments using EXW (Ex Works) incoterms. That means the customer will be the importer of record and will be responsible of all duties, taxes/VAT and brokerage fees. Contact your local customs office for details.

As a rule Cisco Meraki will ship any UPS or FedEx shipment to a non-EU country using a paperless process. The commercial invoice is therefore electronic and will not be included in the shipment.

Cisco Meraki has the ability to ship using most carriers if shipping on a customer’s account. If Cisco Meraki has any concerns or issues with the carrier you selected you will be contacted.

Other questions about shipping, please contact [email protected]

Australia and New Zealand Delivery Times and Shipping Information

Shipments to Australia and New Zealand will ship from California, US and will arrive in 2-5 days. UPS offers different international shipping options:

  • UPS Worldwide Saver: 2-3 days transit, the more expensive option, not offered to all countries (e.g., Australia)
  • UPS Worldwide Expedited: 2-5 days transit, the cheaper option

For most addresses, P.O. Boxes are not acceptable delivery addresses. If your shipping address must include a P.O. Box Cisco Meraki cannot guarantee delivery.

Shipping Options

Cisco Meraki will only ship international shipments using EXW (Ex Works) incoterms. That means the customer will be the importer of record and will be responsible of all duties, taxes/VAT and brokerage fees. Contact your local customs office for details.

As a rule Cisco Meraki will ship any UPS or FedEx shipment using a paperless process. The commercial invoice is therefore electronic and will not be included in the shipment.

Cisco Meraki has the ability to ship using most carriers if shipping on a customer’s account. If Cisco Meraki has any concerns or issues with the carrier you selected you will be contacted.

Other questions about shipping, please contact [email protected]

Other International Locations Delivery Times and Shipping Information

International shipments not going to North America or Europe will arrive in 2-5 days. UPS offers different international shipping options:

  • UPS Worldwide Saver: 2-3 days transit, the more expensive option, not offered to all countries (e.g., Australia)
  • UPS Worldwide Expedited: 2-5 days transit, the cheaper option

For most addresses, P.O. Boxes are not acceptable delivery addresses. If your shipping address must include a P.O. Box Cisco Meraki cannot guarantee delivery.

Shipping Options

Cisco Meraki will only ship international shipments using EXW (Ex Works) incoterms. That means the customer will be the importer of record and will be responsible of all duties, taxes/VAT and brokerage fees. Contact your local customs office for details.

As a rule Cisco Meraki will ship any UPS or FedEx shipment using a paperless process. The commercial invoice is therefore electronic and will not be included in the shipment.

Cisco Meraki has the ability to ship using most carriers if shipping on a customer’s account. If Cisco Meraki has any concerns or issues with the carrier you selected you will be contacted.


In fact, Windows Server 2016 still uses IIS 6 tools to host and manage the SMTP service. This is truly remarkable that a fundamental service like SMTP has not been changed for at least the last 13 years. The old adage of, ‘If it isn’t broken, do not fix it’ comes to mind.

Launch the Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 Manager.

You need to step through the entire wizard again, even though IIS is already installed (IIS 6 Management Compatibility and the IIS 6 Management Console must be installed for SMTP to work).

From the Search charm, type IIS. Hover your mouse over one of the selections, and run the Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 Manager.


2 Answers 2

You can try 3 different things-

  1. Try pinging https://updates.jenkins-ci.org/download/plugins/ and see if it gets any response. If it doesn't respond then make sure your internet is working fine.
  2. You can try installing the plugins by connecting to a VPN.
  3. Lastly, you can reinstall Jenkins to see if the error persists.

I have to reinstall the Jenkins 2-3 time and it starts working, but at an initial level still, I am not able to install suggested plugins. I have setup Jenkins first and then installed all the plugins manually.


GPS Initialization and Projection #565

Hi,
I just have a 2 questions about GPS in AirSim and a final generic question.

Question 1

How to set the initial GPS location (I believe this is called home_point in the code) . For clarification this is my setup:

OS: Windows 10
Flight Controller: Simple Flight
UE4 Custom Map - Pawn Spawns automatically

It seems that it is set to some Microsoft building (47.6414680,-122.140167) by default. I see it hardcoded here and here.

I think the first link is the relevant code and its being automatically set. So I can change this code myself manually and rebuild, but I was wondering if there was a more elegant way. Like maybe a settings files configuration, or maybe a custom property on the a vehicle pawn that is set on the UE4 editor (maybe UE4 has a GPS property on an object, I didnt see it). Or maybe an API to set the Home position (I'm using python and I dont see it there).

Question 2

I am looking at the projection that you are using to convert between GPS and NED (planar coordinates: x,y,z). I think the code is here or here. The first looks a like a very simple projection, but was wondering how you would feel about supporting other projections. Right now my map in UE4 is projected in EPSG:3857 and all object can be geo-referenced this way. I was wondering how you would feel about using proj4 to do the conversion for you between the planar coordinates/GPS coordinates (instead of the two links I showed). I think the big concern would be speed and adding an extra dependency. However this would allow any research to just simply specify the projection (using the SRID like EPSG:3857 maybe in a setting file) and the projection is taken care of. Just wondering!

Question 3

So I am NOT using PX4 SIL, nor ground control. Can you explain the benefit of these items and how they fit in to the AirSim global picture. Is PX4 a replacement for simple_flight ? Something I miss is the ability to subscribe to data events like the pawn position/orientation, instead of having to query it like the python API provides. I come from ROS/LCM background so this would be like a topic that I can subscribe to. Does PX4 SIL or Ground control provide that ability. Anyways thanks for all your help and the great product.
Thanks,

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Sytelus commented Oct 26, 2017

For #1: which vehicle are you using (car / multirotor (simple_flight / PX4))? We are planning to add this in settings file. Right now we don't have any other way than changing code, however.

For #2: Right now everything is from UE4 to NED. The UE4 coordinates are all internal and all of the AirSim code as well as APIs expose only NED coordinates. I think it might be good to support other coordinate systems. Is that what you are talking about? Or are you thinking about how UE4 to NED conversion happens? The current code for conversion is simpler but should be fairly accurate over large area that matters for multirotors. Of course, for cars its different matter.

For #3: PX4 SIL allows you to fly drones using PX4 firmware without having hardware such as Pixhawk or Pixracer. However its difficult to setup and get working. This is why we designed simple_flight firmware. Currently, well, its really simple and only had PID controllers but later we would add state estimation as well. PX4 SIL doesn't enable event subscription model. We are planning to add ROS adapter later (current APIs don't support push model). One think PX4 can do is allow listening to MavLink messages. That's as close as you can get to listening to events. However you will need significant technical know how on how to do this and in the end you get to listen to MavLink messages that might be convertible to ROS messages. That should work in SIL or HIL mode. We have app called LogViewer that does this.

JeremyBYU commented Oct 26, 2017 •

Thanks for the quick response!

I am using the default multirotor model with simple flight. No PX4. I think a settings file would be good and maybe also an api call. I saw this api call but I think its for PX4 only. I can use this if necessary, but I would prefer not to.


6 Answers 6

In your question, you're broadly describing the concepts implemented by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a signaling protocol "big" Internet routers use to coordinate the Internet routing table.

Somehow, through the magic of the Internet, routing tables, and the like, this router is able to tell the world the best way to get to the companies firewall is via the Primary provider. If that goes down, the routing tables will offer up the secondary route to the server. The whole time the cameras only need to know about the companies firewall.

You're further correct that this is usually done in such a manner that the cameras (and often the firewall, too) aren't required to know about BGP. The router owned by company in your conceptual diagram does know about BGP, as do the ISP routers but the downstream devices don't need to.

I am assuming to set this up, it will require coordination with both providers so they both can make adjustments to their routing tables, too.

Yes, and that's BGP's primary function -- to enable different companies to coordinate their routing tables by sharing information.

In your example, you use the IP address 109.204.4.184 for the video processing machine. I'm going to substitute the IP 192.0.2.184 which is an address reserved for documentation.

The router owned by company would use BGP to advertise reach-ability to 192.0.2.0/24 and the ISP routers would be configured to accept that advertisement.

The ISPs further propagate that reach-ability information for 192.0.2.0/24 to other ISPs throughout the Internet (there are tens-of-thousands of ISPs who do this together using BGP.)

If the connection between router owned by company and ISP 1 goes down, so will the BGP advertisement. ISP 1 will withdraw its reach-ability advertisement from the Internet by telling its neighboring ISPs that it no longer has a path to 192.0.2.0/24 via your connection. ISP 2 will still have a working path, and the Internet shifts to that working path.

Indeed, under normal circumstances, both ISP 1 and ISP 2 are working in an active-active configuration and if one of your uplinks fails, even ISP 1 will know how to reach you by going through ISP 2 (but it won't tell the rest of the world about the ISP 2 link, for reasons outside the scope of this question.)

I hope this helps. There are many tutorials online if you think your business needs BGP.

In addition to @ronmaupin 's answer, you will need your own IP address space (not owned by your ISPs), and your own Autonomous System Number (ASN) for the company location. Depending where you are, it may be difficult to get IPv4 addresses, so you should plan on using IPv6. You also will need to establish BGP peering with each of your ISPs.

Depending on the model, you may use one router for both ISPs, or have one for each. In the latter case, you will use VRRP, as suggested.

It also may be possible to connect to one ISP at two different locations (point of presence). You could use the ISP's address space and alleviate the need for your own. You will still need to run BGP.

If you want to do this, you will need to get IP space and probably an AS number allocated by a regional internet registry. You will then need to get a router that supports BGP and work with your providers to set it up to advertise your IP space to them. Ron and Jeff have described the mechanics pretty well.

However there are a few more things you should think about before going down this route.

The first is that internet routing changes are not instant. If a link goes down unexpectedly then it may take time for the traffic to re-route (afaict this varies from about half a second in the best case to sometimes minutes or longer). The public internet itself is also ultimately a "best effort" network, not a network that provides guaranteed bandwidth from A to B.

The second is that internet traffic is bi-directional, you also need to think about your outgoing traffic and you have several choices here. You could just point default routes at your providers, but this gives your router no information on which ISP has the better route to a given destination. You could import the full routing table, but that means you need a router that can accomodate a very large number of routes. You could also import routes for providers you consider strategically important (e.g. those associated with google, facebook, major ISPs in your country etc) and use default routes for the rest.

The third is that the regional internet registries have run out of v4 space for new allocations, so if you need v4 space you will have to buy it on the markets.

Finally don't expect to do this on "broadband" connections. You are likely going to have to rent dedicated links to IP transit providers.


4 Answers 4

TLS connections have 3 important, distinct properties:

  • privacy, i.e. protection against eavesdropping
  • authentication, to make sure the parties communicating are really who they pretend to be
  • integrity, meaning the data cannot be modified during transmission

It seems your opponents argue only against the first one, but the other two are critical for most applications. For DP-3T in particular, lack of authentication would mean an attacker could intercept a transmission and drop it while the application would think the code has been transmitted successfully.

And more generally, TLS nowadays is cheap and easy to setup. You would need a very good reason not to use it rather than one to use it. In fact, at least for iOS, it is explicitly required that an app uses transport security, and exceptions must be justified.

Along with cybercriminals willing to do wiretapping over wireless networks, today's complicated networks typically carry a great number of different surveillance middleboxes for different purposes. Those devices not only eavesdrop, but can sometimes modify the transmitted data in arbitrary ways, intentionally or unintentionally.

E.g. a DPI equipment installed by an ISP can be set up to replace the Web site advertisement with the ISP's ads. If configured in a wrong way, this equipment would then also replace unrelated parts of Javascript or XML code in the data streams transmitted by mobile apps or Web sites.

Therefore, the contemporary threat model for Web sites and mobile apps just assumes encrypted HTTPS as transport. HTTPS is rather easy to set up these days, it comes for free and eliminates such a great number of opaque and complex threats and potential bugs that it's easier and much more reliable — from the operational standpoint — to set it up than to not.

The opponents maintain that using HTTPS is obfuscating the app, that the app should behave transparently and send all the traffic over HTTP so they can see what they are sending, because the data is "anonymous" anyway.

I'm going to assume the boldfaced "they" refers to the end user, and not to the developers (because if it does refer to the developers, then this is a straightforward problem of not using appropriate debugging techniques such as server-side logging).

Realistically, how many of your end users are going to be running Wireshark or a similar piece of software? Of those that are technically proficient enough to run Wireshark, how many are seriously going to find HTTPS traffic suspicious? It's quite possibly the second most popular (layer 7) protocol in the world (after SMTP, I would tend to imagine), and as you say, the DP-3T protocol explicitly requires its use. Anyone who would find it suspicious is unlikely to know enough about networking technology to use Wireshark in the first place. In my opinion, the use of unsecured HTTP is more likely to provoke suspicion than the use of HTTPS.

On the other hand, it's quite possible to hide data in unencrypted network streams using any number of different forms of steganography (in this case, by hiding some data in the purportedly "random" ephemeral IDs that are used by DP-3T, and/or in the secret key when it gets uploaded for an infection report both of those are opaque blobs of binary data with no meaningful structure for the user to introspect). So the fact that the technical end user is capable of monitoring your app's traffic doesn't actually help all that much with trust anyway.


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