Breaking connecting between features (Editor tool)

I snapped a series of lines to a point (The ? symbol on the picture). Now, I am trying to unsnap them so I can connect them to their respective line I just created.

My question is simple. How do I that? I looked everywhere online. Whenever I try editing the line vertices they move as one. If I delete the point everything else is deleted. I really don't want to the delete the lines and redo all the attributes associated with it.

From your screenshot it looks like you're editing a fiber network, so I assume you're using a geometric network.

You need to add the Geometric Network Editing toolbar

Highlight the line you want to disconnect from the geometric network and press the second button from the left (Disconnect). You can only disconnect one feature at a time. After you move it to where you want, be sure to use the first button from the left (Connect) to reconnect the feature to the geometric network.

Sometimes feature classes that participate in geometric networks or composite relationship classes in geodatabases tend to move and delete together during editing. Maybe check to see if your lines participate in a geometric network, or a composite relationship class? If so, try deleting the geometric network or the relationship class in question and attempt editing again. Also, be sure to write down the geometric network/relationship class properties before deleting, so you can re-create the network or relationship after you're done with your edits.

About Editing Geometric Network Features (From ESRI)

Relationship Class Properties (Also From ESRI)

Good Luck with this.

In recent decades, the science of remote sensing has grown by leaps and bounds. A multitude of remote sensing systems (e.g., space-borne, air-borne and terrestrial based systems), such as visible imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) are continuously developing to deliver acquisition of a broad range of data types describing the Earth&rsquos surface, including both natural and man-made objects. These sensors, in turn, support Earth observations and numerous emerging applications in natural resources and the environment as well. Major advances in Earth observation have facilitated the development of remote sensing based sensors with higher accuracy and efficiency and better computing performance, which are leading to new theories and geospatial methods. Issues delineating to natural resources such as hydrological issue, land use issue, ocean trash, nuclear issue, natural disasters as well as overgrowth of population etc. are generating some specific problems for the environment. The main challenging task is to establish advanced strategy for continuous monitoring and mitigate the issues with their effects for the purpose of environmental safety. As a basement tool, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with remote sensing data can execute scientific investigations to characterize the environmental components and demonstrate solutions for various issues. Advanced image-processing techniques based on state-of-the-art data mining, machine learning, deep learning (neural networks, developmental learning, topic learning, artificial intelligence, automatic learning) can also be applied for an accurate investigation. Various models can be proposed to identify and monitor the issues and effects with a special focus on natural resources and environment.

The topics of interest include, but not limited to:

  • Climate change investigation and monitoring
  • Environmental health and degradation analysis
  • Analysis of environmental impact of industries
  • Environmental pollution mapping
  • Overpopulation monitoring and management
  • Resource depletion monitoring (over consumption of resources, fishing, logging, water Illegal mining, depletion)
  • Deforestation and tree species monitoring
  • Illegal waste dumping (waste management)
  • Land use applications
  • Exploitation of natural resources
  • Ecosystem management
  • Environmental effects on crop farming
  • Overgrazing monitoring
  • Energy conservation monitoring
  • Natural disaster applications (landslide, earthquakes, flood, Bushfire, Tsunami)
  • Multi-temporal high resolution satellite images for environmental investigation
  • Terrestrial laser scanning technologies for feature identification
  • High resolution aerial photographs
  • Deep-leaning in image classification
  • Machine learning approaches
  • New pixel based image analysis
  • New object based image analysis

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After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS), able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

Breaking connecting between features (Editor tool) - Geographic Information Systems

When uploading zip code data, the system won&rsquot be able to complete the process until you correctly classify the data. After a few simple steps you will get to a screen that looks like this:

Before you click on the button &ldquoGenerate indicators,&rdquo you should click on the word &ldquoAddress&rdquo in the column titled &ldquoPurpose.&rdquo This will bring you to a screen that looks like this:

You need to de-select the box titled &ldquoPart of Street Address&rdquo and select the box &ldquoPart of Region&rdquo instead. Then click the &ldquoUpdate&rdquo button, which should remove the &ldquoERROR&rdquo message from the status box at the right of the screen. Then you are ready to click on the button &ldquoGenerate indicators,&rdquo and after the data have processed (which may take several minutes for a significant amount of data), you will be taken to screen that looks like this:

The &ldquoMap&rdquo and &ldquoRankings&rdquo options are both interesting ways to view your data. Unless you want to share your data with other users of Dataplace, you should not click on &ldquoPublish this dataset.&rdquo

The resulting map of zip code data from the Queens Museum of Art, as viewed in Dataplace, looks like this:

Dataplace allows you to zoom in or out, and also click on a particular area of the map to view the exact number of visitors associated with that zip code. If you have full street address information within a dataset of visitors or members or donors, you can also upload that list to Dataplace to map and view the block-by-block geographic distribution of those visitors instead of the concentration of visitors within a particular zip code.

As of September 2007, the beta version of this tool was experiencing some &ldquobugs&rdquo and other limitations. Most significantly, the tool was not yet able to recognize and geocode zip codes starting with the number zero (sorry New England and New Jersey). That explains why the above map of visitors to the Queens Museum of Art shows no visitors from zip codes in New Jersey or Connecticut. There are also fewer options in how to present the data than you would find with a traditional GIS program, so the Dataplace maps you produce may not be able to portray your data in the most compelling format possible. Likewise, you cannot produce maps that simultaneously display data from an uploaded dataset of visitors and also Census data associated with the zip codes or Census tracts from which those visitors originate, which is a powerful feature of more sophisticated GIS tools. But the developers of Dataplace hope to address those limitations in future versions of the program, and even in its current form, the Dataplace uploading and mapping tools form an exciting resource in that it is free and is much simpler to use than most GIS programs.

Using advanced GIS techniques to analyze visitor data

While a free tool like Dataplace can be used for simple GIS analysis of visitors to your organization, more sophisticated GIS techniques can be utilized to create more customized maps and to overlay participant data with census data to observe both the concentration of participants geographically and various demographic characteristics of neighborhoods from which participants are drawn.

Most GIS applications, which tend to have strong visual appeal, can be especially powerful advocacy and evaluation tools if the data tell a compelling story. At a high level of sophistication, GIS techniques can provide exciting insights about the way a cultural organization interacts with its communities. Mapping Cultural Participation in Chicago, a project of the Cultural Policy Center at the University of Chicago, looks at visitor and donor data from more than 60 cultural organizations in Chicago combined with Census data on socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, creating a rich topography of cultural participation in the city, neighborhood by neighborhood and organization by organization, as in the map below. We recommend reading the Cultural Policy Center&rsquos report to contextualize the map we have reproduced here and comparing it with other maps and analyses produced through the research study.

Full-blown GIS capabilities, even basic techniques, are not typically within the skill-set of cultural professionals. However, most colleges and universities teach GIS skills, and there may be undergraduate and graduate students who might be interested in undertaking a real-world analysis using your visitor addresses/zip codes as a class project or to refine their skills. You should consider contacting faculty in the geography, geoscience and/or economics department at a nearby college or university to inquire about GIS training offered.

Visitor Survey Data

In addition to mapping visitor addresses, you can also collect and analyze survey responses from visitors and program participants.

For many cultural advocacy and planning purposes, the primary &ldquoanalysis&rdquo of survey data is simply tabulating the responses and presenting them in chart, graph and/or map form, along with narrative explanation. If you gathered the survey responses in an Excel spreadsheet, you can use Excel&rsquos chart wizard to create a display format for various results. A simple Step by Step Excel Chart Tutorial is available.

A useful analysis is one that is easily understood at a glance and highlights any results that may be contrary to accepted wisdom. A good write-up of survey results will be reviewed by many constituents (board members, staff, and institutional funders, for example) who may have uneven knowledge of how the survey was conducted, so it is recommended to include a copy of the survey instrument along with some basic facts about when and how the survey was administered. For most purposes, the write-up need not take the form of a detailed paper, but should instead explain key information and be formatted so as to make it simple to find quickly find information.

Often the primary goals of a particular program or organization are not economic, nor can their success be evaluated effectively on the basis of participation levels alone. In other words, you may wish to measure not only that you engaged a diverse or targeted audience, but also that your program had significant impact on the knowledge or attitudes of that audience.

Surveys, if carefully designed, can provide quantitative evaluation of changes in learning or attitude within a given audience. Surveys can also be amazing time-wasters, so good forethought is essential to make sure that you seek a reasonable amount of information and focus on data that you will actually find useful.

Generally speaking, we recommend that your survey fit on a single page (or less). Take, for example, a survey project by Real Art Ways (RAW), a multidisciplinary organization in Hartford, Connecticut, with an annual budget of roughly $1 million. RAW received a grant to bring area middle school and high school students to RAW&rsquos cinema to view the documentary film, &ldquoMighty Times, the Legacy of Rosa Parks,&rdquo with facilitated discussion on personal empowerment and civic leadership. Real Art Ways wanted to develop a questionnaire for students to fill out at the end of each visit to help evaluate the success of the program in meeting its goals and encourage further reflection by the students on the messages in the film. RAW hoped the results would help them strengthen the program in the future and encourage continued support from the project&rsquos funder, which it did. Here is a copy of the survey instrument

Mighty Times: the Legacy of Rosa Parks, is a powerful film, and Real Art Ways (RAW) is an engaging place for youth to visit, so the responses were predictably positive in general, but RAW staff were surprised to receive such thoughtful and useful feedback to the open-ended questions. The &ldquodata&rdquo that result from open-ended questions can be difficult to organize and quantify, but capturing personal voices can be extremely valuable and should be considered as a possible component of your next survey. Sample quotes can be compiled into a document and grouped under thematic headings to give readers a sense of the collective response to a particular program. RAW staff used a compilation of student quotes to help make the case for the program.

Children&rsquos Discovery Museum (CDM) of San Jose, California, is another organization that has used surveying, along with focus groups and interviews, to assess impacts on learning associated with a particular arts program. Their report [PDF] contains detailed information on their methodology and findings and serves as an example of how to present a comprehensive summary of the results of an intensive evaluation effort, including an Executive Summary that captures the main findings CDM wanted to communicate to its funders and other key constituents.

Social Network Analysis

Researchers can examine the extent to which a particular arts organization has developed linkages to other nonprofits in the community through the affiliations of board members, staff and volunteers, and can measure how those linkages change over time (in response to particular initiatives, for example).

Visually, a social network is a series of nodes or dots, connected by a set of links or lines. A social network can be graphed whenever you can articulate what the nodes represent and what the links connecting them represent. In work with arts organizations, the nodes are typically organizations. The organizations are usually linked by the action of individuals &ndash individuals who are employed by the organization, or are on the board, volunteer at the organization, or work on one of its initiatives.

The first step of social network analysis is data collection. The example that follows focuses on building a social network database of links between organizations made by staff, board members and volunteers of organizations in the community. The database, an Excel spreadsheet, contains the names of staff, board members and volunteers of various organizations, and the analysis is performed with software that identifies links between organizations created by individuals who are affiliated with multiple organizations &ndash perhaps serving on the staff of one organization, on the board of other organizations, and as a volunteer at still other organizations.

The necessary data can be obtained in one of two ways:

You can directly solicit names of staff, board members and volunteers from a cohort of organizations that you wish to include in the study, and you can fill out additional data from organization web sites, where staff and board members are often listed, and sometimes volunteers as well.

If you use this methodology successfully and elicit participation from a wide range of nonprofit organizations throughout the community, you should end up with sufficient data for an analysis of links between those different organizations. This was the method we used in gathering data for the social network analysis of MASS MoCA in the northern Berkshires of Massachusetts.

You can ask the staff, board members and volunteers of a particular organization to fill out a questionnaire on which they will list their professional and volunteer affiliations. If the questionnaire is completed by a large majority of the staff, board and volunteers, you will have sufficient data to analyze the &ldquoprimary network&rdquo of the organization, showing the strength of its connections to other organizations in the community. A sample of this type of questionnaire for social network data collection follows.

To get a broader picture of the local social network, you can invite the leaders of other organizations in the community to ask their staff, board and volunteers to fill out a similar questionnaire. You do not have to ask every nonprofit in the community to participate. Begin by targeting a dozen willing organizations that represent both the arts and non-arts segments of the local community.

Along slightly different lines, the Social Impacts of the Arts Project at the University of Pennsylvania has produced a study titled &ldquoArtists and their Social Networks&rdquo. It is based on detailed record-keeping by a large cohort of Philadelphia artists that allowed the researchers to observe, among other things, how often particular types of artists turn to other artists and art service providers for support in advancing their careers.

Breaking connecting between features (Editor tool) - Geographic Information Systems

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The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux".

Graphic art software is a subclass of application software used for graphic design, multimedia development, stylized image development, technical illustration, general image editing, or simply to access graphic files.

Breaking connecting between features (Editor tool) - Geographic Information Systems

The Continuing Discussion: What must we do to teach world history effectively?

Although Ross Dunn has always been generous with his knowledge and time, with this book he has given us a substantial gift, which will be particularly noted by those who have engaged in a long struggle to grasp world history and find ways of communicating the subject. Perhaps a personal note will place in perspective the opinions I express in this review.

In his preface, Dunn presents his book as, in part, a personal "silver anniversary celebration" (iii) of his introduction, with two colleagues, of a course on world history to 1500 C.E. That struck a chord with me because one of his collaborators, William Phillips, wrote to me to ask for suggestions. Phillips knew that in 1972 at New York University I had developed a course entitled something like "Comparative Mediterranean Civilizations," dealing with the period 500-1700 C.E., which I was then teaching at another institution as a two-semester course breaking about 1200. To help develop their San Diego State course, he wanted to know how my course was going, what books I assigned, and which themes I stressed. I do not recall what I wrote, but the letter probably contained more complaints and doubts than enlightenment. I hated the course title, with its suggestion that I would compare the internal histories of discreet civilizations but I had few models of how to teach a course that focused on a major sea as its core while trying to understand this "local" history on the basis of interactions with other regions that had reached almost global proportions well before my concluding date. Even plowing through Fernand Braudel's classic La Mediterranee [1] during my first semester of graduate study at the University of Wisconsin had not prepared me for the questions about periodization, selection, and organization that I would confront. although I did receive useful guidance from Domenico Sella's courses and advice [2] and a conviction, derived from reading the just- deceased Joseph Levenson's Confucian China and Its Modern Fate [3], that something like a real world history was emerging. I arrived in Idaho in 1975 to work in a department organizing its curriculum on principles that provided no space for my "Mediterranean" course, but I continued to follow the debates about what world history might be and how it could best be taught. Because he has been much more connected to these issues, Dunn pulls from his experiences the enthusiasm for preparing this reader that is evident throughout his lucid introductions to each section. There are many world historians who will have often expressed (during their struggles since the 1970s to develop courses that break with nation-state and western civilization models) their need for something like the orientation Dunn provides and will, therefore, join me in expressing appreciation for the book.

I do not believe that I have ever before invented a course in order to use a particular book, but I have done so now. In the spring semester, with Ross Dunn's splendid reader in hand, I will teach an upper-division course entitled "World History and Geography for Teachers."[4] Although Dunn prepared his book primarily to meet the needs of those designing and teaching world history courses at the college and university level, I will direct my course toward working and pre-service K-12 teachers because this group also needs, as he recognizes, the grounding in the premises, concepts, organizational decisions, and major scholarly contributions on which their textbooks, curriculum materials and standards, state-mandated examinations, and educational policy debates are based. World history lacks a fixed place in Idaho's public school curriculum, and when the subject is taught or proposed as an elective secondary course, controversy may surface. In those cases where some sort of civil debate on this "contested terrain" (p. 551) is possible, public school teachers must possess the confidence that only comes from a solid grasp of the subject and how it might be taught. I believe that a frank discussion of the fifty-six selections that Dunn includes will provide teachers with an understanding that they perhaps do not develop in their courses about particular historical themes and periods, even though the core of our undergraduate program is supposed to be comparative and world history.

Of course, I cannot review a work such as this one the way I would a monograph. Therefore, I will concentrate on the overall organization and the appropriateness of the selections for each of the eleven parts, providing attention to the small number of previously unpublished contributions. Dunn states clearly that the distribution of the readings among the sections is somewhat arbitrary because a number of them could have done duty elsewhere, and I have no intention of quibbling with those difficult choices because anyone reading the book to help think about course preparation or any instructor using it for a course will recognize when it might serve his or her purpose to alter the editor's scheme. However, readers should not skip Dunn's introduction because it provides the finest brief discussion I have seen of the development of world history during the past half century and, therefore, explains effectively his editorial decisions. Moreover, readers will thereby appreciate how well Dunn has achieved his goal of resisting ". the temptations to try to organize the selections in a way that traces a single genealogy of thought" (p. 110). At the end of each part, he has added a selected bibliography of articles, collections, and monographs with helpful comments about each. I would have liked an index.

The works in part one, "World History Teaching over Time," do a nice job of delineating the curricular and ideological roots of challenges to much that constitutes the "new world history," which is characterized by the explicit use of comparison and approaches drawn from the social sciences as well as by raising historical questions of sufficient spatial scale that responses move questioners beyond the framing categories of nation-state and civilization. William Swinton published the earliest of these selections in 1874, and I am struck by how many public comments on the Eleventh of September events express perspectives reinforced or drawn from earlier approaches to history teaching. By contrast, Gilbert Allardyce's 1990 piece on the emergence of the world history course and Craig Lockard's 1994 article on Philip Curtin and the "Wisconsin School" help us understand the ways in which these more recent initiatives in teaching and research were frequently conscious reactions to unfortunate consequences, in public policy and social interaction, of the earlier perspectives.

Having identified differences, Dunn then puts flesh on them in his section "Three Arguments for Teaching World History and Two Remonstrations." Given the pivotal early leadership of L. S. Stavrianos that Allardyce describes, it is appropriate that this part begins with his statement, while including the more familiar views of J. H. Hexter and William McNeill. Readers will be pleased to find here an intellectually entertaining, previously unpublished 1988 lecture given at Ohio State University by the late Marilyn Robinson Waldman, a student of Marshall Hodgson and collaborator of William McNeill. These five selections effectively throw onto the table many of the issues with which world historians must grapple with as they organize courses, especially if this must be done in the face of institutionalized opposition. The dynamism of debate among world historians themselves is then highlighted in the next part by five selections grouped together as "Redefining World History: Some Key Statements," which includes important essays by Curtin, Hodgson, and McNeill, as well as the incisive statement by Eric Wolf about the necessity to focus on "Connections in History." I believe that those primarily familiar with Geoffrey Barraclough's works on European, and particularly on German history, will appreciate his comments in this part.

The following five parts (parts 4 through 8) explore in more detail the problems, opportunities, and approaches already exposed, while adding additional insights, cautions, and concrete suggestions about how a coherent world history might be written and taught: "Interregional and Superregional History" "World Systems and World History" "Teaching Regions and Civilizations in World Context" "Periodizing World History" and "Comparisons and Themes". Anyone who must organize a world history course will find the sequence of these sections to be pretty effective since the contributors force the "syllabus writer" to confront all of the main difficulties of conception and vocabulary in a complex but enriching way. Along the route, the struggling instructor will hear major voices.

Part four includes David Christian's delineation of Inner Eurasia, Patrick Manning's emphasis on the African diaspora as a major integrating topic for what is increasingly called "Atlantic History," and Edmund Burke's essay on Hodgson's "hemispheric interregional approach." Dunn has added Lynda Shaffer's well-known and stimulating article on "Southernization" but also an unpublished appraisal by John Voll of the concept's value and dangers. In many ways, the examination of world systems approaches that follows in part five raises the discussion of interconnections potentially to a global level, and here the editor pulls in the necessary formulations of world systems history by Immanuel Wallerstein, Fernand Braudel, and Andre Gunder Frank, but he brackets them with a valuable critique by Craig Lockard and an innovative use by Voll of Islam as a world system. In terms of using this book to stimulate student thinking about regional connections in world history, teachers will be able to mine these two sections for weeks.

Because it deals with how to handle the histories of particular regions and because the major attention is given to India, the "Middle East," and Latin America, part six, on teaching regions and civilizations, possesses less coherence, but Dunn does an excellent job in his introduction of contrasting the concepts of these authors that serve as the foundations for their emphases on particular, distinctive aspects of the places on which they work. Moreover, in this regard it is useful that the selections on India by John Richards and Tara Sethia are so strikingly different in terms of what they think should be emphasized when one "inserts" South Asia into world history. While Sethia seeks to define what makes India a distinctive civilization, Richards assesses the degree to which what happened there in the first global age, from the fifteenth to the early nineteenth century, corresponded to historical processes evident elsewhere. Julia Clancy-Smith and William Sater largely share Richards' goal in their treatments of the "Middle East" and Latin America, respectively. The authors of the other two selections do a terrific job of clarifying what is crucial about decisions made regarding the presentation of particular regions. In his article "The American Educational Tradition: Hostile to a Humanistic World History?," with which I was previously unfamiliar, Donald Johnson presents one of the most precise and carefully argued cases for a civilizational approach that I have read, probably because for a long time, those before who focused on civilizations felt the reasons for doing so were largely self-evident. To close this part, historical geographers Martin Lewis and Karen Wigen air their concerns about those whose stories are suppressed in a civilizational approach and about the frequent reification of civilizations, however defined.

Perhaps because it is so fundamental to historical understanding, periodization drives me nuts whenever I have to organize a course, whatever its spatial and temporal boundaries. Probably that is why I often escape into a thematic focus (creativity, religious reform and conflict, attempts to create countries on the basis of written constitutions), in the hope, no doubt vain, that this flight will reduce the problems of periodization. The selections in part seven at least expose the reasons for my anxieties, even if they have left me unsatisfied. Dunn has included the well-known and influential views of Jerry Bentley and Peter Stearns, as well as William Green's intelligent review of the possible approaches. What I really like, especially for purposes of the course I want to teach, is that the editor has provided the world history standards developed under the leadership of the National Center for History in the Schools. Because Dunn was so deeply involved in the standard development process and the subsequent debates about the results, both his introductory comments regarding that process and the rationales in the standards for the periods included add a valuable component to this section.

Although not all of mine are designed as world history courses, the writers included in part eight on comparisons and themes do a lot to convince me that my tendencies in this direction might be justified by more than simple escapism from periodization anguish. Of course, Dunn starts with substantial statements about comparative history from Michael Adas and Curtin. Given that the historical interests of many of my students are shaped by the region where we live, I was delighted to see that the editor included Helen Wheatley's previously unpublished paper on the fur trade, a version of which she read in 1998 when Philip Curtin was honored by the World History Association. The other two selections, on cross-cultural trade by Steve Gosch and David Smith's on teaching religions, are nicely anticipated by selections in earlier parts (for example Sethia's on India and Bentley's on periodization) and effectively enrich this discussion.

For many who are trying to create effective world history courses, the next three parts provide a lot of disturbing reading and, in some cases, reveal just how little support might be out there. The authors included in part nine, "Gender in World History," do an outstanding job of elucidating the fundamental distortions in any world history course that stem from the outright or relative exclusion of women. However, I fear that those motivated by these calls to do a better job of "gendering" their presentations will become quickly frustrated by the still too limited availability of information and case studies for many periods in the history of most world regions. Bibliographic searches draw one into a disproportionate emphasis on women in Europe and the United States, and even when escaping such regional concentration, into an emphasis on women as victims rather than as actors. Although the essays in part ten, "Constructing World History Programs and Curricula," provide several wonderful models for undergraduate and graduate study, they draw along a current of anxiety about continuing political difficulties. The selections in the final part, "The Future of World History," do a good job of constructing an agenda, especially in terms of how the presentation of human developments ought to be rooted better within their natural and physical environments, which perhaps would include a very long temporal dimension as advocated by proponents of "Big History." None, however, provides any hint that those interested in understanding complex environmental issues within a holistic context have developed a striking tool (Geographic Information Systems [GIS]) that offers still largely unexplored possibilities for interdisciplinary and collaborative work in historical studies, for organizing all types of information, for the analysis of the interactions of different--often quite diverse types of data--and for the effective presentation of results.[5] Concerns such as these can only be discussed in reference to the nature of the tools available, but once they are pulled into the debate, instructors become more acutely aware that they lack adequate graphic, and especially cartographic representations of the interactions and comparisons about which they want to teach, digitalized instructional materials, effective Internet search techniques, and collaborative schemes for research and teaching. These schemes in particular should be built into world history graduate programs, much as they are in disciplines where collaboration has been crucial for decades. As has often been the case, it may be the need for more effective world history teaching, in this case for the techniques and materials that would make instruction more effective, which will drive part of the discipline's research agenda.

With these reflections on the future of world history, I have demonstrated how well Dunn has met a goal of this book (p. 8). He hopes that the collection would encourage us to take stock of where we are as researchers and teachers. Dunn feels we are arriving at some consensus about ". world history as a mode of analysis involving comparison, formulation of larger-scale questions, and use of various tools of the social sciences" (p. 484). From this perspective, I want to conclude with some generalizations about what the most recent of this anthology's selections reveal.

The book brings out nicely an epistemological issue fundamental to the importance of world history as a way to develop understanding. In historical writing, and in the social sciences in general, one often detects the reification of self-contained entities such as the nation-state, civilization, culture, and society, which are then considered as expressions of reality, much as Isaac Newton felt that if one could define an atom (in other words its essence), one had thereby described the reality of nature. This tendency embodies two related problems. First, we never produce a complete description of the reality of any historical subject. Instead, we offer "abstractions" or approximations best judged in terms of how much they enhance our understanding of the real world.[6] But no abstraction worthwhile as an aid to understanding can emerge from the definition of discreet entities, such as civilizations or societies, because these cannot exist apart from their interactive connections within the real world, which change, eliminating "essence" as a proper subject for study. This difficulty is even coming to be recognized in that bastion of nation-state history in the United States, research and teaching about U.S. history.[7] We must, therefore, retain as a central question when organizing world history courses how we can aggregate human groups in ways that promote understanding rather than obscure reality, and as many of these anthologized authors show, the answer will vary depending on the historical questions, the themes, and the comparisons with which we chose to deal.

We still do not do an adequate job of handling agency in the midst of grand narratives, especially that of women. Most frequently, we concentrate on the agency of members, especially the male ones, of tiny groups who enjoyed disproportionate shares of the economic and political resources of their location. We do not agree about the impact of individual human agency in world history or about what roles and locations within economic organization, political institutions (including religious ones), or solidarity groups are most likely to provide opportunities to individuals for change-producing agency. We should make this issue more of a focus for our discussions, in World History Association meetings or in specific H-World forums for example, because our students and fellow world citizens struggle to understand what they might do to shape rapid change on a global scale.

Despite the exciting debates over concepts and vocabulary, in a word, ideas, found in these selections, I am struck by how relatively little attention world historians pay to the issue of how ideas shape human action, or even to whether they do so. When the question is asked at all, the response is sometimes encapsulated in a reification of a reductionist version of "culture" as an actor. The partial exceptions to this observation are the articles (those of Sethia, Smith, and Voll for example) that discuss religion, but even from these, I do not get any clear sense of how ideas, as such, might have an impact.[8]

Every reader will have suggestions about selections that Dunn should have included. In light of my observations about the lack of adequate attention among world historians to human agency and ideas, I miss one voice in particular: that of Joseph R. Levenson. Even though his accidental death in 1969 prevented him from defending his master work, finally published as a single volume only the year before, Levenson has not been without influence in world history circles. One need only point to the many contributions to the World History Association of Ralph Croizier of the University of Victoria, who has among his published works one of the best appraisals of Levenson's legacy.[9]

In conclusion, Ross Dunn has done an outstanding job of assembling a group of texts that will define, for world history teachers, the complex problems of vocabulary, spatial and temporal organization, and thematic focus, which they will face as they develop their courses, and these same essays can often be mined for solutions. Furthermore, this "teacher's companion" is sufficiently inclusive of the major voices among world historians to serve as a platform for any discussion of where we are as a discipline and what our future work should be. In spite of its price, I hope that my students next semester enjoy reading it as much as I have.

[1]. Fernand Braudel. La Mediterranee et le monde Mediterraneen a l'epoque de Philippe II (1st French ed., Paris: Colin, 1949). The second French edition (1966) was not yet available for my use. The English translation, based on the second French edition, was only published in 1972-73.

[2]. Domenico Sella's best-known book in English is Crisis and Continuity: The Economy of Spanish Lombardy in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

[3]. Joseph R. Levenson. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: A Trilogy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968). The three component volumes appeared between 1958 and 1965.

[4]. Another book, which Dunn calls "[e]ssential reading for world history teachers" (p. 223), serves as my course's second pillar: Martin W. Lewis and Karen Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1997).

[5]. One can obtain an excellent introduction to GIS from a recent, hour-long video entitled "The World in a Box," which, although its case studies offer little reference to typical historical questions, I have used successfully to stimulate discussion with colleagues and students. It is available from the Geospatial Information and Technology Association (GITA) at the following URL:

[6]. For an interesting explanation of the nature of such "abstractions," see David J. Staley, "Designing and Displaying Historical Information in the Electronic Age," Perspectives: American Historical Association Newsletter 36,9 (December, 1998): 40-44.

[7]. See the "LaPietra Report" of the Organization of American Historians at the URL:

[8]. There are useful reflections on this topic in some of selections in Stuart B. Schwartz, ed. Implicit Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflecting on the Encounters between Europeans and Other Peoples in the Early Modern Era. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

[9]. Ralph C. Croizier, "China's Worlds: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and the 'Problem of Chinese Identity'." In Maurice Meisner and Rhoads Murphey, eds., The Mozartian Historian: Essays on the Works of Joseph R. Levenson (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1976): 157-174.

Monthly Local Area Employment Situation: 2017

.. tools & data to examine the local area employment situation .. this update on the monthly and over-the-year (Jan 2016-Jan 2017) change in the local area employment situation shows general improvement. Yet many areas continue to face challenges due to both oil prices, the energy situation and other factors. This section provides access to interactive data and GIS/mapping tools that enable viewing and analysis of the monthly labor market characteristics and trends by county and metro for the U.S. See the related Web section for more detail. The civilian labor force, employment, unemployment and unemployment rate are estimated monthly with only a two month lag between the reference date and the data access date (e.g., March 2017 data are available in May 2017).

Use our new tools to develop your own LAES U.S. by county time series datasets. Link your data with LAES data. Run the application monthly extending/updating your datasets. Optionally use our 6-month ahead employment situation projection feature. See details

Unemployment Rate by County – January 2017
The following graphic shows the unemployment rate for each county.

— view created using CV XE GIS and associated LAES GIS Project
— click graphic for larger showing legend details.

New with this post are the monthly 2016 monthly data on the labor force, employment, unemployment and unemployment rate. Use the interactive table to view/analyze these data compare annual over the year change, January 2016 to January 2017.

View Labor Market Characteristics section in the Metropolitan Area Situation & Outlook Reports, providing the same scope of data as in the table below integrated with other data. See example for the Dallas, TX MSA.

The LAES data and this section are updated monthly. The LAES data, and their their extension, are part of the ProximityOne Situation & Outlook database and information system. ProximityOne extends the LAES data in several ways including monthly update projections of the employment situation.

Interactive Analysis
The following graphic shows an illustrative view of the interactive LAES table. In January 2017, 149 counties experienced an unemployment rate of 10% or more. The graphic shows counties experienced highest unemployment rates. Use the table to examine characteristics of counties and metros in regions of interest. Click graphic for larger view.

Metro by County Integrating Total Population
The following graphic shows an illustrative view of the interactive LAES table focused on the Chicago MSA. By using the query tools, view characteristics of metro component counties for any metro. This view shows Chicago metro counties ranked on January 2017 unemployment rate (only 10 of the 14 metro counties shown in this view). Click graphic for larger view.

The above view shows the total population (latest official estimates) as well as employment characteristics.

More About Population Patterns & Trends
U.S. by county population interactive tables & datasets:
• Population & Components of Change 2010-2016 – new March 2017.
• Population Projections to 2060 2010-2060 – updated March 2017.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

GIS in Defense Installation and Environmental Management

2 A Letter from Jack Dear Colleagues: The installations and environment (I&E) community was one of the first to use geographic information system (GIS) technology in the defense sector, so I have a particular fondness for the work you do. You have consistently led the way in implementing GIS to help effectively manage and administer stewardship of lands and property. The I&E community manages a complex array of problems indeed, your work could be equated to that of a mediumsized city, except you look after everything: the environment, facilities management, land-use planning, utilities, emergency response, and security. Your GIS implementations are truly world class in scope. These stories detailing your work were first published in the GIS in the Defense and Intelligence Community series. We are recompiling the articles in a focused I&E publication because they communicate a powerful evolution in GIS deployment. The defense I&E community has gone from implementing GIS in stand-alone desktop applications to developing departmentwide and installation-wide geospatial applications. You are now building a defensewide Installations Spatial Data Infrastructure. The impact of your work extends beyond defense and demonstrates pioneering models for global collaboration of spatial data. I want to use this opportunity to thank you for the work you do it is very important. Warm regards, Jack Dangermond

3 Installation and Environment

4 Installation and Environment U.S. Air Force GeoBase One Installation. One Map GIS links graphic features (entities) to tabular data (attributes). Air Force basing operations, whether at home or abroad, have relied on civil engineers to respond especially when the mission called for a map. Since the creation of the Installation Engineer role in the early 1950s to the present, surveying and mapping have always been key civil engineering tools for managing the complex installation infrastructure. The USAF GeoBase program, launched in the summer of 2001 by the Air Force Civil Engineer, has transformed the traditional surveying and mapping process into an invaluable information resource for the larger installation mission, both at home air bases and in the deployed environment. What is GeoBase? It is probably easiest to begin with what it is not. It is not just an information technology (IT) system that can be purchased over the counter at a software store. It is not a capability that can be achieved by buying computer hardware and GIS software and leaving it on organizational doorsteps to be implemented. Rather, shaped from lessons learned over the past 20 years, it is a radically different and surprisingly practical strategy for guiding Air Force organizations to make long-term, shared use of geospatial information or digital maps to accomplish the shared basing mission. Most important, it is a strategy that is working. Aided by the convergence of innovations across the technology, policy, and academic research sectors and championed by the Air Force Civil Engineer, the GeoBase strategy has literally transformed traditional mapping. However GeoBase may be defined, in the wake of 9/11 events, the rapidly expanding demands for situational awareness within and around Air Force base operations show that the GeoBase program came just in time.

5 Building a Strong GeoBase Foundation The comprehensive GeoBase program is based on guiding principles that echo Federal, Department of Defense, Air Force directives or widely recognized best practices for information management. These guidelines direct Air Force organizations to Recognize the value of assigning a dedicated GeoBase cadre to ensure that local geospatial information resources are identified, organized, and applied to help satisfy Air Force and DoD needs. Appreciate that paying attention to the necessary cultural and behavioral changes accompanying GeoBase, rather than information technology, will be the most critical factor in securing long-term success. Employ a strategic planning process to guide the development and assessment of the impacts of GeoBase investments to include phasing the implementation to both reduce risk and allow the Air Force culture to adapt to new ways of doing business. Adhere to a single set of Air Force-approved information technology and data standards as outlined in the GeoBase technical architecture to maximize interoperability, minimize new application development costs, and protect the GeoBase investment. Ensure current GeoBase information resources are accurately inventoried and then shared to the maximum extent allowable to avoid wasteful redundancies. Validate existing sources of geospatial information prior to investing in new data collection efforts. Provide all mission elements with controlled, ready access to a georeferenced common installation picture of the installation. Assign geospatial information stewards with the responsibility for maintaining and protecting their respective functional information. In turn, Air Force organizations should put these principles into operation through their pillars of system and information architectures, financial management, policy and guidance, education and training, people, and work flow. Adhering to these guidelines will help ensure Air Force organizations successfully meet the rapidly growing expectations of the Air Force for the GeoBase program. Common Installation Picture 5

6 Installation and Environment GeoBase Missions Garrison GeoBase Typically associated with fixed U.S. Army installations, Air Force doctrine uses the same term to describe one of two modes of Air Force basing. Garrison GeoBase enhances command and control by providing one installation map that delivers current situational awareness in a secure fashion via the base network. The Common Installation Picture (CIP) is a high-quality picture that allows viewers from their desktop computers to quickly visualize the complex built-up infrastructure using easy pointand-click steps. The Garrison GeoBase information technology architecture was approved by the Air Force Chief Information Officer in October 2002 and will allow current and emerging IT solutions across the Civil Engineer, Real Property, Command and Control, Security Forces, Weapons Safety, Environmental Management, and Communication sectors to make one installation. one map a reality. Expeditionary GeoBase (GeoReach) Expeditionary GeoBase supports the second Air Force basing mode. GeoReach is the name given to the expeditionary site mapping capability that involves sharing both classified and unclassified information of potential and actual forward operating locations (FOL). While the intelligence sector has focused on targeting red force targets within the battle space, GeoReach fills a key basing niche by allowing airmen with Secret access rights to view blue force FOL imagery and key infrastructure. Staff within the PACAF, ACC, and USAFE Geo-Integration Offices team with their respective operational planners from their regional areas of responsibility to optimize combat support and force deployment. The CIP again serves as the visual rallying point for compiling all expeditionary site survey data into a single view. The imagery is acquired through partnerships with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and other branches of the military. Additional software tools enable operators, logisticians, and civil engineers with aircraft parking, fuel and munitions storage, and other force bed down requirements. Because of the GeoReach process, fewer airmen go forward prior to deployment where they may be exposed to hostile conditions, yet expeditionary site planning knowledge vastly increases.

7 Strategic GeoBase It did not take long for senior leaders on the Air Staff and the Air Force Secretariat to inquire as to how the GeoBase program could be extended to meet their needs. Therefore, the Strategic GeoBase program was launched in 2002 as a practical means to convey imagery and key data from Garrison GeoBase sources to satisfy strategic questions. Proximity of installations and ranges to other regions, such as urban areas, national parks, and other areas of political interest, is a frequent topic of discussion within the Pentagon. Strategic GeoBase is designed to serve as the single installation visualization tool by incorporating legacy Air Force geospatial information investments such as the range database maintained in Airspace and Ranges (AF/XOOR). In addition, Strategic GeoBase will also blend with emerging mapping solutions tied to homeland defense, force protection, and base realignments. Thanks to the Assistant of the Air Force for Installations, Environment and Logistics, the first Air Forcewide library of imagery acquired from commercial space-based satellites provided situational awareness to senior leaders in early As more Air Force members become aware of GeoBase capabilities, this new appreciation for the value of geospatial information will undoubtedly lead to more innovative uses. The Future Defense Installation Spatial Data Infrastructure In just a few years, the USAF GeoBase program has demonstrated how a mission-centric approach to GIS investment can rapidly be adopted across a worldwide enterprise. Senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders have also gained a new appreciation for the value of GIS-enabled situational awareness. In July 2004, the Office of the Secretary of Defense established the Defense Installation Spatial Data Infrastructure (DISDI) office that will serve as a new DoD focal point for securing adoption and shared use of geospatial information resources across the DoD. The DISDI office will develop policies and facilitate coordination of spatial data standards, imagery, and associated geospatial technologies across the broad worldwide CADD/GIS user base in the defense sector. The DISDI effort will also ensure that critical mission sectors outside of installations and environment, such as homeland defense, are also making full access of the one installation. one map vision.

8 Installation and Environment Navy Region Hawaii Uses GIS Technology for Facilities Management and Public Works Operations Commander Navy Region Hawaii (COMNAVREG Hawaii) required a standardized process to keep track of its shore installation facilities and infrastructure and desired the capability for information retrieval and analysis to support facilities planning, management, and public works efforts. To accomplish this goal, it created a component-based GIS application called Regional Shore Installation Management System (RSIMS). RSIMS combines spatial data with tabular information to provide its users with a visual tool that allows them to intuitively perform reporting and analysis functions for regional planning and facilities management. RSIMS links the region s spatial data to databases such as Naval Facilities Assets (NFA) that contain real property inventory for land, buildings, structures, and utilities owned or leased by the Department of the Navy. RSIMS is also linked to MAXIMO, an Oracle -based maintenance management system that tracks and manages repair, maintenance, and service work orders for many military activities in Hawaii. Energy consumption data is also available through a link to CUBIC, an Oracle-based system that stores electrical as well as water and sewer metered data. The integration of GIS technology with operations databases results in an easy-to-use, interactive graphical interface allowing users to navigate and retrieve information via a map. It also provides reporting and analysis functionality for work orders, equipment inventory, preventive maintenance inspections, and job plans for recurring work.

9 Through RSIMS, multiple users can instantly access spatial data in real time from their desks and are able to overlay various data types onto each other. It has increased worker efficiency and improved response time. Users are now able to do data analyses and see relationships between different data sets, all of which were difficult or impossible when the data existed as paper maps and stand-alone databases. Other benefits RSIMS has provided are the ability to share data among various departments, thus eliminating data redundancy and fragmentation, as well as streamlining data maintenance by making it easier, faster, and more cost-effective to update the maps. RSIMS also includes raster imagery such as orthorectified aerial photography and USGS topographic line maps. The vector spatial data served by RSIMS is stored either as ESRI s ArcInfo shapefiles or in ESRI s ArcSDE geodatabase, and the data is maintained using ESRI s ArcGIS Desktop (ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox ) and ArcInfo Workstation. The raster images in RSIMS are compressed using LizardTech s MrSID and displayed as SID files. RSIMS utilizes a spectrum of spatial data required for facilities and installation management. General installation maps: military facilities and dwelling units, transportation routes, naval vessels, piers, cadastre, bathymetry, and hypsography Utilities: electrical, wastewater, potable water, steam, compressed air, and saltwater Environmental constraints: wetlands, shoreline sensitivities, refuges, endangered species, electromagnetic radiation arcs, explosive safe distance arcs, hazardous materials storage, and remediation zones Public safety: tsunami and flood inundation zones, emergency services locations, oil spill contingencies, street geocoding for emergency dispatch, and secured perimeter boundaries RSIMS is accessed via the Internet based on ESRI s ArcIMS software. RSIMS is fully component based and data driven allowing for rapid development of customized applications for specific user needs. All configuration data is stored in an extensive Oracle schema that is maintained through an administrative module. The standardization of the ESRI file formats allows the same set of spatial data to be used by the Navy for complementary purposes. The RSIMS spatial data is therefore accessible in a mobile environment for on-site investigations using ESRI s ArcPad and a Pocket PC handheld device. Accessing the data through ESRI s ArcScene and IMAGINE by ERDAS allows the Navy 3D visualization capabilities to verify view channels between buildings, study height regulations, and model harbor depths for ship passage. 9

10 Installation and Environment Vandenberg Air Force Base Geo-Integration Office Overview The Vandenberg Air Force Base Geo-Integration Office provides AF GeoBase support to the USAF Space Command and the 30th Space Wing. For the past 10 years, Vandenberg AFB has been a pioneer and leader in GIS implementation and deployment for the USAF. During this time, Vandenberg AFB has compiled one of the largest GIS databases in the Air Force. Its commitment is to provide the 30th Space Wing and all supporting agencies with up-to-date mapping support using the latest technology and equipment in GIS technology. 10

11 Capabilities The GIS data sets developed at Vandenberg AFB provide multidisciplined GIS support for the 99,000-acre Vandenberg AFB. From mission critical support of space and missile launches to environmental concerns and fire management, ESRI ArcGIS products have supported the following: Comprehensive planning Command Post/Disaster Control Group Launch Control Center Disaster Response Van Security Forces Dispatch Center Explosive Ordnance Disposal Management Airfield obstructions analysis Natural and cultural resources NRO mission planning Hotshots Fire department fire modeling (FARSite) Flood modeling Safety Environmental planning Environmental restoration (IRP) and compliance Engineering project management Toxic hazard modeling Utilities operations and maintenance Communications operations and maintenance Disaster preparedness Emergency response Base safety Bioenvironmental Real estate management Wildlife management Weather Advances in GIS technology, including GPS receivers/base stations, high-resolution orthorectified color photography, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-derived hyperaccurate topography have provided the Vandenberg Geo-Integration Office with the necessary tools to ensure that data sets are of the highest accuracy. These advances, along with an excellent GIS support staff, are in line with the highest standards of the U.S. Air Force. 11

12 Installation and Environment MacDill Air Force Base GeoBase Program Overview GeoBase uses an enterprise GIS as its backbone, providing accurate base infrastructure and operational information for realtime situational awareness. MacDill s GeoBase implementation focuses on two mission sectors: Garrison GeoBase and Strategic GeoBase. Implementation efforts began at MacDill AFB in September Although it is relatively early in the process, the deliberate and systematic approach taken at MacDill has already paid off in huge dividends. Garrison GeoBase This is an innovative program enabling cross functional information sharing through a variety of IT solutions. It ultimately enhances the efficiency and accuracy in which current situational assessments are presented to the MacDill AFB decision makers. The foundation of Garrison GeoBase is the Common Installation Picture (CIP). Essentially, CIP is the base layout map provided in a spatial environment. All other basemapping programs use The CIP as its basic map data set. Data displayed on top of The CIP is called Mission Data Sets (MDS). Currently MacDill AFB users access, print, and manipulate the CIP and MDS information through browsers on the base Intranet. In a matter of months, GeoBase has already become a vital working part of many MacDill AFB functions. Strategic GeoBase This program provides senior leadership an Installation Visualization Tool (IVT) and the means necessary to answer strategic questions. The MacDill AFB IVT was used to answer the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) committee s questions concerning base infrastructure, land usage, base construction constraints, and other critical information. The MacDill community planner and real property manager both stated, Without the GeoBase service, answering the BRAC inquiries would have been much more difficult and highly time-consuming. 12

13 SafeSite Plan Critical Asset Protection Planning SafeSite Plan takes advantage of the best commercially available GIS and security software to intelligently manage the security readiness cycle: risk assessment, vulnerability analysis, mitigation strategies, operational security, and security advisory management. SafeSite Suite is an open system a single command center that integrates all available assets into a single interface. Using your GIS database as the foundation, this open architecture simplifies links to existing documents and systems, including as-built drawings, prefire surveys, hazmat locations, safety manuals, digital photos, and utility system schematics, placing necessary situational awareness information in the hands of the responders. Installation and Environment Technical Capabilities Risk Assessment. SafeSite Plan implements standard methodologies (DSHARPP and Carver) to quantify the risk to each structure. Deterrence Network Planning. Use a map-based interface to place access points, sentries, barricades, EOCs, K-9 units, sensors, and fencing and calculate accurate standoff distances without requiring GIS editing experience. A 2D or 3D map interface quickly simulates security improvements by adding new devices, moving existing ones, or easily adjusting the number or location of personnel. Surveillance By modeling features in a real-world 3D environment, users will be able to quickly and easily plan various surveillance scenarios. These security scenarios can be compared by effectiveness or cost. Each camera, sensor, and sentry patrol processes a line-ofsight algorithm that is quickly merged into a surveillance view. Weapon-Specific Threat Analysis A comprehensive library of weapons allows users to create what-if scenarios by weapon. Specific tools have been created for weapons-based standoff distance and man-portable and laser analysis for aircraft protection. Powered by ESRI, the ArcGIS 9 platform includes ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and ArcGIS 3D Analyst. G/I/S has been an ESRI corporate consultant and business partner for more than 11 years. 13

14 Installation and Environment Enterprise GIS for Fort Sam Houston Installation Management The Fort Sam Houston Enterprise GIS (EGIS) is an integrated installation-level GIS that gives users broad access to geospatial information. The primary distribution of the centrally managed, secured GIS is Web-based. EGIS is integrated with numerous legacy systems, encompasses data from disparate sources, and supports critical business functions being shared across the organization. As a decision support and planning tool, EGIS ties the data to mission requirements and displays the data in a common and standards-compliant mapping format that can be shared, compared, analyzed, and viewed throughout the installation. Installation Applications Master planning Integrated facilities management Environmental and natural resources management Cultural resource management (architecture, archaeology) Installation status report (infrastructure and training lands) Real property management CADD/Mapping integration Force protection planning Physical security integration Fire and emergency services support and planning Emergency operations management Disaster response and preparedness Master Planning and Future Development Understanding and visualizing your surroundings Seeing the big picture for development opportunities Siting future projects in relation to mission Identifying natural and environmental constraints Getting site details before design begins Picturing the new facility 14

15 U.S. Army Europe Integrated Training Area Management Program Installation and Environment USAREUR ITAM Mapper allows users to search by coordinate, training area, range, country, or dynamically zooming in on an area. ITAM GIS Users Planning Training Events Trend analysis function allows users to dynamically swipe temporal data. In this example, Grafenwoehr s Range 301 black-and-white image from 1963 is swiped over the 2002 color image. Heavy Maneuvers in the Box at CMTC Hohenfels The United States Army Europe (USAREUR)/7A Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) program provides a management and decision making process that integrates training and other mission requirements for land use with sound natural resource management practices. The overall goal of the Army s ITAM program is to achieve optimum, sustainable use of the training lands by implementing a uniform land management program. Standard information products, such as the ITAM Viewer and ITAM Mapper, provide readily accessible dissemination tools for the ITAM GIS program. The Web-based ITAM Mapper delivers orthoimagery, satellite imagery, topographic maps, elevation models, and vector data to military trainers and resource managers. 15

16 Installation and Environment Surface Danger Zone Tool Geographic Information Services, Inc. (G/I/S), has developed an ArcGIS (8.3 or 9) toolbar that creates surface danger zones (SDZ) for weapons systems defined in DA PAM This tool allows range safety officers and range control officers to interactively create SDZs by selecting weapons systems, target points, target media, and firing points. Users are able to identify firing and target locations in the map interface by entering MGRS grid coordinates or selecting existing points. The tool also allows users to create SDZs for Combined Armed Live Fire Exercises (CALFEX) by combining individual SDZs. The underlying data structure allows users to keep track of which SDZs were developed for specific training exercises. The parameters used to draw the SDZs are stored in related data files. Recent additions to the SDZTool include interactive editing of SDZs. This work was performed under contract with the U.S. Army Environmental Center in support of the ITAM program and the U.S. Marine Corps. 16

17 U.S. Navy Antiterrorism/Force Protection Installation and Environment Geographic Information Services, Inc. (G/I/S) has developed an ArcGIS software-based ATFP planning tool. The ATFP tool allows security personnel to locate 12 different ATFP features anywhere on the basemap. Features include access point barriers, vehicle inspection areas, centralized parking, fixed and mobile posts, emergency staging areas, K9 locations, react force locations, command and control nodes, exterior personnel alerting systems, security cameras, and perimeter intrusion detectors. Positions for all features are set for each of four force protection conditions (Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta). Security personnel can also assign ATFP attributes to existing features such as buildings and ships, identifying to blast compliance values, setting standoff distances, etc. A risk component allows users to assign threat, vulnerability, and likelihood of attack values to any feature for assessing risks of attack. The data viewer component allows users to see ATFP configurations for each condition. This work was performed under contract for the U.S. Navy Region Japan Public Work Center. 17

18 Installation and Environment Navy Site Planning Recruit Training Command Great Lakes This map is part of a series used in the analysis of the possible site redevelopment at the U.S. Naval Recruit Training Command (RTC) Great Lakes located in northeastern Illinois. The installation houses approximately 54,000 recruits each year. The barracks are overcrowded and need to be replaced because the facilities are out-of-date, the structures are deteriorating, and there is insufficient utility capacity. RTC Great Lakes requested a site analysis of the installation to prepare proposed site redevelopment plans illustrating environmentally sound solutions for improving and managing the land and facilities while supporting the RTC mission. Several planning guidelines were set such as the creation of a campus environment, segregation of vehicles from recruit pedestrian traffic, incorporation of antiterrorism/force protection setbacks, minimizing negative impacts to the adjacent community, and consolidation of common land use functions into activity corridors. In addition to the design criteria, planners were required to maintain a constant berthing capacity for 16,000 recruits, minimize the adverse impacts to recruit training activity, and maximize the use of existing infrastructure. To help in this process, the maps identified proposed functional districts and land use zones within RTC utility corridors facility/building locations natural resource features and transportation, vehicular, and pedestrian circulation modes. 18

19 Norfolk Naval Station: From Zero to ArcIMS in 30 Days Geographic Information Services, Inc. (G/I/S) recently completed a rapid-paced project for the Public Works Center (PWC) at Norfolk Naval Station in Virginia that involved migrating CAD data to an SDSFIE-compliant geodatabase being served through an ArcIMS site. From start to finish, the project was completed in less than 30 days and now serves as the foundation for the PWC GeoReadiness Center for the mid- Atlantic region of the Navy. Yvonne Mingee, director of the newly created Regional GIS Division, recognized that she needed to quickly demonstrate the power of GIS and the ease of implementation to overcome many historical barriers to funding. She contracted G/I/S to create a prototype database that would demonstrate both the utility of GIS in the PWC regional environment and the ability to deploy useful GIS systems quickly. To provide the biggest bang for the buck, she selected the central facility for the region, Norfolk Naval Station, for the initial effort. G/I/S immediately set to work evaluating the available CAD data and digital aerial photography. It was apparent early on that the CAD data and the imagery data had been processed differently at some point, causing a regular shift of the CAD data when compared to the aerial imagery. In fact, PWC felt this data was not usable because of this problem. The errors were corrected through a reprojection process: taking the data back to its original state and properly projecting it to State Plane NAD83. The data was then migrated to an SDSFIE-compliant personal geodatabase. Because of G/I/S s experience in spatial data standard (SDS) geodatabase migrations (more than 35 military installations in the past two years), it was able to complete this task within two and one-half weeks. This migration included establishing the data linkages to the infads database tables used for property management by PWC. This immediately integrated the new GIS data with existing mission critical databases providing a spatial interface for query and analysis. Working simultaneously with the planimetric data migration was an effort to convert the basemap image data from filebased data (TIFs) into an ArcSDE image geodatabase. Both the imagery and the planimetric data were delivered and deployed as an enterprise ArcSDE geodatabase during the fourth week of the project. Installation and Environment Several ArcIMS sites were developed and served as soon as the databases were up and running including an ArcIMS image service serving all ArcSDE basemap data, an ArcMap map service serving an MXD, and a cultural and natural resources Internet map server (IMS) application built by the Corps of Engineers in ArcIMS 3.1 that was later migrated to version 4. These now provide widespread access to the data through the Intranet within Norfolk Naval Station and LANTDIV. The Atlantic Division LANTDIV is one of four Engineering Field Divisions of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. PWC is now able to demonstrate the viability of GIS as an affordable and achievable solution to the regional needs of PWC Norfolk. With this, PWC was able to secure additional funding needed to build the GeoReadiness Center, which will include data for all the bases in the mid-atlantic region, additional ArcIMS applications, linkages to existing tabular data, and GIS data maintenance operations. 19

20 Installation and Environment U.S. Army Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management Overview The U.S. Army Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (OACSIM) establishes the Army s policy for installation of an enterprise GIS. GIS efforts include standardizing and supplementing existing programs, establishing resources for new programs, and integrating requirements for cross services application. In support of these efforts, the OACSIM is establishing a centralized program that includes a GIS repository (GISR). Benefits Implementing an Army-wide enterprise GIS to support Installation Management Cross service coordination in support of the Installation Visualization Tool (IVT) Integration of stovepipe GIS implementation into a sustained service-wide resource Increased situational awareness at all levels at one or many locations 20

21 Operationalizing GeoBase through GCSS-AF The Full Page View will provide users with additional features such as zoom, pan, and data layering options. Toolbar provides features such as zoom, pan, and print. Users can select which layers of data to display on the map. In 2001, the United States Air Force (USAF) stood up the Headquarters Air Force GeoIntegration Office (HAF GIO) to bring geospatial capabilities to the Air Force enterprise in an efficient and effective manner. Under Colonel Brian Cullis, the GeoBase program quickly took root through its Garrison, Expeditionary/GeoReach, and Strategic implementations. By 2004, there were GeoIntegration Offices (GIOs) at all 12 major commands as well as seven field-operating agencies and directreporting units. That year, Col. Cullis moved to the Office of the Secretary of Defense to implement the Defense Installation Spatial Data Infrastructure (DISDI), leaving behind a vision of one installation one map that has become ingrained in the GeoBase culture. Installation and Environment Colonel Hal Tinsley now pilots the HAF GIO, and his focus is to operationalize GeoBase to put the capability (for unclassified resources) into the hands of all USAF personnel, from airmen to general officers to all civilian, military, and contractor support personnel in between. The vehicle for bringing GeoBase resources to the USAF enterprise is the Air Force Portal, the doorway into the Global Combat Support System Air Force (GCSS-AF) that will ultimately support the Global Information Grid (GIG). The first step, achieved in April 2005, was to simply load imagery and base boundary files for viewing and download through the AF Portal. Next on the AF Portal horizon is the ability to access Air Force Common Installation Pictures (CIPs) through Web Map/Web Feature Services as presented conceptually to the left. Geospatial data access will be controlled through roles assigned and enforced through PKI measures inherent in the AF Portal security protocols. Once CIPs are online, the next step will be to grant controlled access to Mission Data Sets (MDSs) within the Air Force domain. From there, the goal is to provide appropriate access to all levels of GeoBase installation mapping and visualization data to all personnel, forward and rear, USAF or DoD, whenever and wherever they need it on the Global Information Grid. 21

22 Installation and Environment Reduction in Manpower Required for Annual Survey at Dyess AFB Mission Air Force Civil Engineering requires that waste and recycle dumpsters be tracked and logged for contract maintenance purposes. Originally, dumpster tracking involved marking the status of the dumpster on a notepad. There are several inherent issues when an inventory is performed with a notepad rather than a digital method. These issues include interpreting the handwriting on the notepad, inventory repetition, writing correct information, annotating comments, tracking the status of the dumpsters, the inability to truly document how many dumpsters are on location, and the length of time such an inventory would take. A better method was needed to track and inventory the dumpsters. The setup window for the custom menu options for data collection Capabilities To provide a useful solution, a list of capabilities needed to be created. These capabilities included Quick-and-easy data collection Customizable data collection attributes Attribute choices rather than typing in information Additions or subtractions of data and attributes Trend and problem area analysis Directly compatible (import/export) with GIS Physical condition tracking Features easy to relocate with GPS Ease of integration of new data into existing dataset Light (portable/easy to carry) Short learning curve to basic use Upon creating a point, the data entry window pops up to provide a user-friendly environment for inputting the attributes. 22

23 Color-coded dumpster map with labels on dumpsters stating problem to be resolved Through fieldwork and meetings, a workflow process was established to utilize ArcMap and ArcPad to collect and organize data on dumpster locations. The data for both waste and recycle dumpsters was used to add or move the dumpsters to locations that would better serve the customer. The physical condition of each dumpster is entered into the database so damage and usage can be monitored. Areas with higher damage rates or units that fill up faster can be highlighted to point out areas that need improvement. Result The inventory can be performed efficiently and effectively. The total inventory time changed from as many as 20 days to only two days because the maintenance history is collected and saved for future reference. The inventory has the ability to document the total number of dumpsters at the base. This information proved Dyess AFB was short 20 percent of the number of dumpsters required by contract. The base could increase the number of dumpsters by 20 percent at no additional cost and provide better service to its customers. M.Sgt. Pope updating the attributes of a previously logged dumpster 23

24 Installation and Environment Smart Points Smart Points platform Introduction The purpose of the Smart Points GIS integration platform, coupled with ESRI s GIS software components, is to provide an inclusive information framework for integrating, controlling, visualizing, analyzing, connecting, and disseminating information among intelligently connected sensors, devices, objects, and personnel. The Smart Points platform was created in response to experience gained during Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) conducted from early 2003 to the present. These ITDs required the integration of multiple sensors, robots, responders, and other objects, developed by many different sponsors, into a common operational picture (COP). Smart Points evolved as a technology platform to accommodate this wide variety of heterogeneous systems and provide a means for them to operate within an ESRI client environment and interact with each other and the system users. Architectural Support The TSC Smart Points architecture augments and operates within the ESRI ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE, and ArcIMS back-office framework. This implementation ensures that these objects can not only operate but also interact with other elements within the geospatial context of an operation as well as with other sensors or objects that are integrated in the system. Each sensor or object is connected to this back-office framework through Java connectors and software proxies of these objects. This implementation provides the necessary abstraction of the physical device so that it can be assigned behaviors and interactions with other sensors or devices in the information system. Once in the information system as addressable objects, the sensors and devices can operate and persist, providing continuous support and updates to their clients. As information elements, the sensors and devices can operate as smart objects so that, for instance, a chemical agent sensor could alarm, transmit a message to personnel or organizations that need to know that the alarm has occurred, prompt the reading of local meteorological sensors, and trigger the creation of a chemical plume model that is introduced to the system with little or no manual intervention. 24

25 DTRA Integrated Technology Demonstrations The Smart Points framework was developed over time as part of the DTRA ITD process that began in late A hallmark of these ITDs was the necessary integration of a wide variety of devices and sensors within a COP. Smart Points served as the integrating component used to make the various systems operate together for the customer. The success of this implementation was proven as part of the Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration 2004, the political conventions of 2004, the Super Bowl and Inauguration in 2005, and the Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration in Navy Center for Asymmetric Warfare The Navy Center for Asymmetric Warfare is implementing a shore-based ESRI geospatial infrastructure that will be used to support its asymmetric warfare initiatives. The geospatial infrastructure will be augmented with Smart Points to connect to a fast patrol craft with multiple sensors and potentially unmanned vehicles launched from the boat. Airport Security Display Processor TSC is building an airport perimeter security system that takes advantage of the Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE) radar to track anomalous objects within the radar s field of view. This radar, coupled with Smart Points, provides system capabilities that can accommodate new sensors such as video, acoustic, and motion detection. Each of these sensors can be cued by the ASDE radar. Department of Energy SensorNet During the DTRA ITD 4 activity of June 2005, the Smart Points team integrated DoE SensorNet components via the DoE Web Feature Service (WFS) implementation into the ITD systems. This capability utilized the SensorNet framework to discover and display physical location, detection, and alerts from a variety of networked sensors into an enterprise GIS architecture. 25

26 Installation and Environment Enterprise-Level Web-Based GIS for Multiple Bases and Map Services AFRC s GeoBase puts the MAJCOM s geospatial information at its users fingertips. Mission The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is one of the major commands in the Department of the Air Force. The AFRC Major Commands (MAJCOMs) maintain a GIO and GeoBase system to serve the GIS and geospatial needs of their directorates. Background AFRC s GIO utilizes a Web-enabled GeoBase system to support the GIS needs for 14 USAF installations. AFRC s system includes more than 60 map services and more than 130 GIS layers. This system supports a diverse set of functional communities and end users. Users are either data consumers (typical users), data providers (GIS and CAD analysts), or data administrators. Web-Based Enterprise GIS Using ESRI s ArcIMS System Capabilities: The GeoBase system is located on central network servers in AFRC s SC Networking Center located at its HQ. The system includes more than 60 ArcIMS services and more than 130 GIS layers. The central system has an Oracle back end database, ArcIMS map servers, and front-end Web servers. The entire MAJCOM GeoBase system is database driven, and its users rights and resources are managed through secure and reusable Web interfaces. These systems allow users to navigate to base and application-specific functions and data (e.g., facility, planning, utility, basemap, environmental). AFRC s GeoBase systems follow AFRC s Network and Domain Security Policies per USAF and DoD policies. The system uses network domain accounts integrated with DoD s CAC-Card. There are more than 280 end users who use CAC-Cards to get user-specific resources to add, edit, and browse data. Numerous additional users use network accounts for browseonly access to resources. DoD s System Security Authorization Agreement (SSAA) and its Certification and Accreditation (C&A) procedures were completed for this AFRC enterprise system. 26

27 AFRC s custom map viewer allows multiple services to be displayed. Its map interfaces enhance GIS Web services and are reused across all its bases. Its database-driven design supports the open standards and specifications needed to sustain an enterprise system. Benefits: The benefits associated with utilizing a network-based, Web-enabled enterprise ArcIMS system are numerous including the following: Resources can be managed and shared across MAJCOM s LAN/WAN systems. GIS layer names and data management practices are standardized for MAJCOM s bases. Map legends are database driven and generated on the fly from multiple map services. Base end users work with familiar and reusable Web interfaces for multiple GIS functions. AFRC obtained a DoD Certificate to Operate (CTO) and registration in its master Systems Compliance Database (SCD) for its GeoBase and related systems. The system follows AFRC s and DoD s security and information management requirements. This positions AFRC s MAJCOM map services to be securely shared with HAF, other MAJCOMs, or other DoD systems as needs dictate. Summary and Future Plans: AFRC s GeoBase has been continuously updated to meet MAJCOM s dynamic requirements. Upgrades have been implemented using design standards and specifications shared with all parties and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. Therefore, AFRC has a number of forwardpointing enterprise initiatives. Some notable new implementations include emplacing the dedicated aerial imagery ArcIMS server, implementing an ArcGIS Server, and configuring a new Oracle Management Server. The Web interface is also being updated as functional communities request new data uses and applications. GIS, GPS, and related training initiatives are concurrently being brought online for end users as well. All these capabilities and benefits associated with an enterprise approach result in a lower Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for providing and managing MAJCOM-wide GIS resources. The enterprise approach will allow AFRC map services to be shared with the GCSS portal via MAJCOM s established firewall and security procedures. 27

28 Installation and Environment Dynamic Web-Based GIS Browsing and Plotting for Multiple Bases and Map Services Facilities map service AFRC s GeoBase makes multiple ArcIMS services available for browsing and large format, Web-based color printing and plotting via its central GIS system. Basemap service Mission/Overview: AFRC is one of the major commands in the Department of the Air Force. AFRC MAJCOM maintains a GIO and GeoBase system to serve the GIS and geospatial needs of its directorates. Background/Introduction: AFRC s GIO utilizes a Webenabled GeoBase system to support the GIS needs of 14 USAF installations. The Web-based GIS allows plotting from multiple map services using dynamic overlays to merge and create A to E size plotting. Imagery map service Dynamic Web-Based Plotting from Multiple ArcIMS Services Capabilities: The GeoBase system is located on central network servers in AFRC s SC Networking Center located at its HQ. The system includes more than 60 map services and more than 130 GIS layers. The system has been designed in a manner to enable an entire MAJCOM to use its interfaces for browsing and querying data via a custom multiservice map viewer. The system is database driven and allows users to navigate to a base and select application-specific functions, data, and maps (e.g., facility, planning, utility, basemap, environmental). 28

29 The interface has been customized to work with multiple map services to automatically layer and prioritize maps to match end user needs as they browse GIS resources. The interface is reusable across multiple bases and allows on-the-fly, Web-based plotting from A to E size maps. This is enabled through the databasedriven nature of the interface and its ability to stack multiple maps from a given base facility. When an end user selects the Print icon from the Web interface, the following steps occur: 1. The extents of all the map services and the order in which they are stacked on-screen are recorded. 2. A menu is presented that allows the user to select the final map size, resolution, and title. 3. A transparent image of each map service is created and given a unique ID. 4. Each transparent image is then overlaid based on the order on the map. 5. One composite image is created from the transparent overlays and sent to an output Web page. 6. The legend for the active service is displayed on the output Web page. 7. When the user is ready to print, a final reminder is sent to set the page to landscape if needed. When printing large-format plots from the Web, it is important to increase the memory size that ArcIMS allocates to its map services. This is important when dynamically sized large prints are generated. Benefits: The benefits associated with utilizing Web-based browsing and plotting menus are numerous including the following: The browsing and dynamic plotting of the MAJCOM s GIS resources have been automated. GIS map resources can be securely shared with many functional communities. Users can plot GIS data on demand without custom software or desktop configurations. The benefits of using a GIS are within the practical reach of many more end users. Base-level end users work with familiar and reusable Web interfaces for multiple GIS functions. All the capabilities and benefits associated with dynamic Web-based mapping, browsing, and plotting result in a lower TCO for MAJCOM-wide GIS resources. Summary and Future Plans: AFRC s GeoBase mapping and plotting interfaces have been designed to meet MAJCOM s dynamic requirements. This includes on-the-fly, Web-based plotting A to E size maps from ArcIMS. Some new system features are likely to include expanding the browsing and querying tools, adding more ArcIMS mapping services to serve functional communities, and allowing end users to interact more with GIS data to manipulate and save custom map settings. Final plotter output from AFRC s multiservice Web interface 29

30 Installation and Environment Layer-Level Security for Langley AFB SDI The Geo-Integration Office at Langley Air Force Base manages a mix of environmental, engineering, mission, and operational layers within its GeoBase GIS. Many of these layers are highly sensitive and require multitiered security and authentication. Patricia McSherry, chief of the Langley GIO, created a sensitivity matrix for all layers in her GIS that categorizes layer access into functional groupings. From this analysis, she created a stoplight chart showing which layers should be visible to which functional groups. Successful implementation of the security matrix demanded a map services infrastructure that was highly secure and also provided maximum flexibility and low maintenance overhead for GIO staff members. To accomplish this, McSherry contracted Penobscot Bay Media to deploy SecureMap for ArcIMS. This extension works with Langley s Active Directory authentication platform to provide flexible, dynamic, layer-level security controls across the Langley Air Force Base GIS. 30

31 MAGTFTC/MCAGCC Twentynine Palms, California Overview GIS is used for decision making and process improvement within the various organizations at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC). GIS plays a vital role in providing decision makers with tools that allow for an integrated approach to military training, land planning, and homeland security issues. As the population in Southern California s high desert continues to grow at a rapid pace, decision makers look at issues such as disaster preparedness, encroachment, infrastructure, and so forth, from a regional as well as a local point of view. At MCAGCC, GIS is used on a daily basis to help with such decisions. GIS is used to show 3D views of established areas on the base as well as areas in potential development. Three-dimensional views integrated with digital elevation models allow decision makers to determine the best placement of future facilities and training areas. When the base engineers were considering the use of wind energy turbines, GIS was used to determine potential wind energy turbine sites in relation to airfield imaginary surfaces. In addition to site analysis, GIS and GPS have become instrumental in the inventory, analysis, and display of AT/FP and critical infrastructure features. GPS information is collected on a daily basis using SDSFIE-compliant ArcPad forms and downloaded directly into the GIS for instant visualization of features. Installation and Environment Aerial photography and lidar overlay GIS applications making a difference in installation management Potential wind energy sites 3D GIS example 31

Learning Geospatial Analysis With Python

Author by : Oliver William
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Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : Geospatial Analysis is used in almost every field you can think of from medicine, to defense, to farming. This book will guide you gently into this exciting and complex field. It walks you through the building blocks of geospatial analysis and how to apply them to influence decision making using the latest Python software. Learning Geospatial Analysis with Python uses the expressive and powerful Python 3 programming language to guide you through geographic information systems, remote sensing, topography, and more, while providing a framework for you to approach geospatial analysis effectively, but on your own terms. We start by giving you a little background on the field, and a survey of the techniques and technology used. We then split the field into its component specialty areas: GIS, remote sensing, elevation data, advanced modeling, and real-time data. This book will teach you everything you need to know about, Geospatial Analysis from using a particular software package or API to using generic algorithms that can be applied. This book focuses on pure Python whenever possible to minimize compiling platform-dependent binaries, so that you don't become bogged down in just getting ready to do analysis. This book will round out your technical library through handy recipes that will give you a good understanding of a field that supplements many a modern day human endeavors.