Front Matter - Geosciences

Front Matter - Geosciences


NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by Grant No. NAG 5-3105 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97&ndash67450

International Standard Book Number 0-309-05792-2

Additional copies of this report are available from:
National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area)

Cover art by Walter Smith, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The cover is a color shaded relief image of the Earth's gravity anomaly field. Warm colors (yellow-orange-red) indicate stronger than normal gravity, whereas cool colors (cyan-blue-violet) indicate weaker than normal gravity. Highlights are illuminated from the northwest. The image combines data from EGM96 over land areas with data derived from satellite altimetry (Smith and Sandwell, 1995a) over ocean areas.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, September 1997

Second Printing, March 1998

PNAS Front Matter delves into the stories of science. The section&rsquos News Features cover research trends in depth, Opinion pieces further the debate on topics of interest to scientists and other readers with a keen interest in science, Inner Workings explore cutting-edge methods or approaches, Core Concepts are substantive explanations of timely terms, and Science and Culture articles feature intersections between research and aspects of culture. Journal Club blog posts are short news stories featuring a recent important, timely journal article selected by one of our Journal Club panelists, who are postdocs and graduate students in NAS members&rsquo labs.

Science Sessions podcasts present brief conversations on topics relevant to today's scientific community, Profiles highlight the life and work of NAS members, QnAs are conversations with PNAS authors, and Retrospectives memorialize recently deceased NAS members.

Front Matter

Economic Geology Models: D. Lentz Climate and Energy: A. Miall Geology and Wine: R.W. Macqueen Great Mining Camps of Canada: R. Cathro and S.R. McCutcheon Igneous Rock Associations: G. Pe-Piper Remote Predictive Mapping: J.R. Harris


Peter I. Russell, Waterloo ON


Jean Alfred Renaud, Sherbrooke QC


Bev Strickland, St. John’s NL


Tri-Co Printing Inc., Ottawa ON


Geological Association of Canada c/o Department of Earth Sciences Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s NL Canada A1B 3X5 Tel: (709) 737-7660 Fax: (709) 737-2532 [email protected] [email protected]

© Copyright 2011 Geological Association of Canada/ L’Association géologique du Canada Except Copyright Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada 2010 where noted.

Tous droits réservés ISSN 0315-0941/01

A journal published quarterly by the Geological Association of Canada, incorporating the Proceedings.

Une revue trimestrielle publiée par l’Association géologique du Canada et qui en diffuse les actes.

Subscriptions: Receiving four issues of Geoscience Canada per year is one of the benefits of being a GAC7 member. A subscription is $150.00 per year or $40.00 per single copy.

Abonnement: Recevoir quatre numéros par année du magazine Geoscience est l’un des avantages réservés aux membres de l’AGC7. Le coût de l’abonnement est de 150,00 $ par année ou 40 $ par copie.

Photocopying: The Geological Association of Canada grants permission to individual scientists to make photocopies of one or more items from this journal for non-commercial purposes advancing science or education, including classroom use. Other individuals wishing to copy items from this journal must obtain a copying licence from Access Copyright (Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency), 1 Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1E5, phone (416) 868-1620. This permission does not extend to other kinds of copying such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. Send permission requests to Geo-science Canada, at the Geological Association of Canada (address above).

La photocopie: L’Association géologique du Canada permet à tout scientifique, de reprographier une ou des parties du présent périodique, pour ses besoins, à condition que ce soit dans un but non-commercial, pour l’avancement de la science ou pour des buts éducatifs, y compris l’usage en classe. Toute autre personne désirant utiliser des reproductions du présent périodique doit préalablement obtenir une licence à cet effet d’Access Copyright (Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency), 1 Yonge Street, suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1E5, Tél.: (416) 868-1620. L’autorisation susmentionnée exclut toute autre reproduction, telle la reproduction pour fins de distribution générale, de publicité ou de promotion, pour la création de nouveaux travaux collectifs ou pour la revente. Faites parvenir vos demandes d’autorisation à Geoscience Canada, au soin de l’Association géologique du Canada (voir l’adresse indiquée ci-dessus).

Publications Mail Registration No. 40028338 Postage paid at Ottawa, Ontario/Port payé à Ottawa (Ontario).

Postmaster: Please send change of address/Maître de poste : faire suivre svp.

Those wishing to submit material for publication in Geoscience Canada should refer to the Instructions to Authors on the GAC 7 Web site,

Cover. LANDSAT false-colour composite ternary image of Foxe Peninsula, southwestern Baffin Island. Optical, remotely sensed data have wide application for geological mapping in Canada’s North, including the discrimination, and in some cases identification of rock types. A variety of optical sensors is now available for specific applications. Image provided by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. See article by Harris et al. on page 49.

lecturer senior geochemist director professor chairman acting vice president associate editor

Geological Survey of Norway, Norway

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Geological Survey of Canada, Canada

senior statistician full professor post-doctoral fellow

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

lecturer senior geochemist director professor chairman acting vice president associate editor

Geological Survey of Norway, Norway

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Geological Survey of Canada, Canada

senior statistician full professor post-doctoral fellow

Vienna University of Technology, Austria



Károly Németh works as a Professor in Geology at the School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University. His main research interests are monogenetic volcanism, volcano geology, natural disasters, geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism.

In 2001, Professor Németh received his first Ph.D. degree in Geology from the University of Otago, Dunedin and his second in Environmental Science from the University of West Hungary in 2003. Here, he described the volcanic geoheritage and geotourism potential of the Plio-Pleistocene monogenetic volcanic fields of the Western Pannonian Basin in Central Europe.

During his PostDoc research, Professor Németh spent 3 years exploring mafic volcanism in the Vanuatu Volcanic Arc, before becoming a permanent research officer at the Massey University&rsquos Volcanic Risk Solutions research group. This role later developed into a lecturer position, where he has teaching duties mostly in geology and geological mapping.

Alongside his work at Massey University, Károly Németh is an adjunct senior researcher at the Institute of Earth Physics and Space Sciences at Sopron, Hungary, and he spent a full year as an Associate Professor at King Abdulaziz University&rsquos Geohazard Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

During his 20 years in research, Professor Németh has conducted geological studies all over the world, including but not limited to, New Zealand, Central Europe, South America and East Asia, where he developed strong research links with esteemed international institutions. Working alongside global scholars, he has published top scientific papers in leading peer-reviewed journals, magazines and books from every continent, even Antarctica!

Károly Németh has numerous publications on geoheritage and its geoconservation aspects (see his most recent publication here). Whilst working in geoheritage research, he helped establish the Commission on Volcanic Geoheritage and Protected Volcanic Landscapes, at the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth&rsquos Interior), where he was an elected executive committee member of the IAVCEI between 2011 and 2015.

Whilst Professor Németh is a research geologist focusing on problems in volcanic geology, in the past 10 years he has become a strong advocate for geoconservation. As he is a trained Montessori Teacher, with a pedagogical background, Károly Németh saw the value of Earth Sciences and geoeducation in tackling the challenges of planetary change that we face as humanity.

Now, as well as an active Editorial Board Member at Conservation MDPI, Professor Németh is also the current chair of the Geoconservation Trust Aotearoa, a non-profit organisation that promotes geoconservation activity in New Zealand and the SW Pacific.

We caught up with Professor Nemeth to gain some insight into the field of Conservation today!

What encouraged you to enter the field of Conservation?

"My own research on volcano geology made my strong interest in conservation. My research, particularly volcanic hazard related research, highlighted the importance of geoeducation in every level of the society to develop a resilience society against natural hazards and be ready to understand the Earth System. Such approach can help us to develop a sustainable society that learn to &ldquolive with the abiotic nature of Earth&rdquo. I have seen through my own research the rapid changes of the Earth&rsquos surface and its geological heritage that vanishes in a fast speed. In this respect, I felt an urgent need to approach to the geological and geomorphological features and processes in a transdisciplinary way where a balance is find between the human society&rsquos needs for natural resources and the respect and preservation of its abiotic heritage."

Which paper (if any) changed your outlook on the field of Conservation?

"I cant really point to a single paper, but can list several in the time of early 2000s when geoheritage research intensity increased and new research fields developed and evolved what we understand these days as geoconservation. I was particularly amazed of the fact how little has been done in the past decades to recognise, characterize and valorise the abiotic nature, and treat it as a natural stage where the biotic nature and human society operates. I was pretty much fascinated by the emergence of the concept of ecosystem services, and then when the same concept was applied to the abiotic nature and formed a concept of geosystem services. While I find these new approaches refreshing, I still think that a far more inclusive and transdisciplinary approach is needed to develop a fully functional and sustainable conservation strategy for geoheritage."

What advice would you give to young researchers/scientists looking to begin their career in Conservation?

"As being a trained geologist with significant research experiences to understand Planet Earth my recent venture to the field of geoheritage and geoconservation showed me the importance to actively look for the cross-discipline areas and be open alternative, sometimes unexpected tools and methods to sort things out. I think particularly in geoheritage and geoconservation research such transdisciplinary approach is the key to become an inter-connected researcher who would be able to identify and execute programs truly would make changes within conservation."

MDPI Books recently released Book Builder, a new online tool to conveniently arrange, design and produce an eBook from any content published in MDPI journals. Book Builder offers two functions: on the one hand (1) Selections, available to every registered user of MDPI on the other hand (2) Special Issue Reprints, which can be used exclusively by Guest Editors of Special Issues.

In just a matter of a few clicks, all users are now able to assemble books from MDPI articles and receive instantaneous feedback in the form of a fully produced and compiled book (PDF), which can be downloaded or ordered as print copy. Selections can include any paper published with MDPI, picking and combining content from different journals and special issues.

This way, the user may for example choose to compile an ebook focusing around a particular topic, or assemble articles from a group of others.

We invite you to make yourself familiar with the new tool! The Book Builder can be found here:

Special Issue Reprints

The Book Builder allows Guest Editors of MDPI journals to create a reprint from a successfully completed Special Issue or Topical Collection in book format. If you are a Guest Editor for an MDPI journal, you can use the new tool to create an PDF document which includes all articles published in the Special Issue as well as a book cover and table of contents.

For Special Issues containing a minimum of 5 articles, the Guest Editor can request its publication on the MDPI Book platform. Published reprints are assigned an ISBN and DOI.

In addition to the PDF copy of the Reprint Book, as a token of our gratitude, MDPI offers every Guest Editor one (1) complimentary print copy (via print-on-demand). All contributors benefit from a discount on orders of any additional print copies, to share with colleagues or libraries or others.

Why choose MDPI Books?

In line with our organization's values, MDPI Books publishes all content in open access, promoting the exchange of ideas and knowledge in a globalized world. MDPI Books encompasses all the benefits of open access&mdashhigh availability and visibility, as well as wide and rapid dissemination. MDPI Books are distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License, meaning as an author you retain the copyright for your work. In addition, with MDPI Books you can complement the digital version of your work with a high-quality printed counterpart.

If you are interested in editing a book volume or series, or have a monograph manuscript to be considered for publication, please submit your proposal online and look at our Information for Authors.

Contact: Laura Wagner, MDPI Books Manager (email)

In June of this year, MDPI will celebrate the 25th anniversary of its foundation. To mark this significant milestone, we have created a 25th Anniversary page on our website that evokes the development of our company over the past quarter-century.

MDPI has been a pioneer of Open Access publishing ever since the concept was first created.

In a wide-ranging interview, our CEO Delia Mihaila reflects on the company&rsquos 25th anniversary and its contribution to the world of scientific publishing.

Delia considers how MDPI has evolved since starting life in 1996 as a visionary &lsquoproject&rsquo run out of an apartment in Basel, Switzerland, by Dr. Shu-Kun Lin. A chemist who was passionate about the long-term preservation of rare chemical sample, Dr. Lin was determined to help scholars publish their findings as quickly as possible and make their research results available to as wide a readership as possible worldwide. That determination remains unchanged 25 years later.

Today, MDPI is an international organization with over 4,000 employees based on three continents and in ten countries, and ranks among the world's top four academic publishers.

MDPI's mission is to accelerate access to new scientific research, delivering insight faster for researchers worldwide. Read more here about the company's remarkable success story and what the Open Access publishing model can offer the global scientific community.

At MDPI, we strive to make your online publication process seamless and efficient. To achieve this, our team is continuously developing tools and features to make the user experience useful and convenient.

As the number of academic papers continues to grow, so does the need to analyze and work with them on a large scale. This prompted us to design a new feature aimed at helping researchers find journals that are relevant to their publication by matching their abstract topic. In this regard, we designed a similarity model that automatically identifies the most suitable academic journals for your paper.

We are pleased to introduce Journal Selector, a new feature that measures similarity in academic contexts. By simply entering the title and/or abstract into our Journal Selector, the author will see a list of the most related scientific journals published by MDPI. This method helps authors select the correct journals for their papers, highlighting the time of publication and citability.

The methodology is known as representation learning, where words are represented as vectors in hyperspace. Representation helps us differentiate between different concepts within articles, and in turn, helps us identify similarities between them.

We used an advanced machine learning model to better capture the semantic meanings of words. This helps the algorithm make better predictions by leveraging scientific text representation. In turn, this ensures high precision, helping authors decide which journal they should submit their paper to.

The goal is to support authors to publish their work in the most suitable journal for their research, as fast as possible, accelerating their career progress.

Contact: Andrea Perlato, Head of Data Analytics, MDPI (email)

MDPI is proud to adopt the principles of the Coalition for Diversity & Inclusion in Scholarly Communications (C4DISC) to support building equity, inclusion, diversity, and accessibility in scholarly communications.

The C4DISC represents organizations and individuals working in scholarly communications and is focused on addressing issues of diversity and inclusion within the publishing industry.

MDPI&rsquos Managing Editors encourage the Editors-in-Chief and Associate Editors to appoint diverse expert Editorial Boards. This is also reflective in our multi-national and inclusive workplace. We are proud to create equal opportunities without regard to gender, ethnicity, geographic location, sexual orientation, age, disability, political beliefs, religion, or socio-economic status. There is no place for discrimination in our workplace and editors of MDPI journals are to uphold these principles in high regard.

Representatives from C4DISC meet monthly, and have started to implement initiatives to shed light and improve on the lack of diversity in scholarly communications. Some of the initiatives include developing a joint statement of principles conducting market research providing training resources, best practices, toolkits, and documentation for our collective memberships and establishing outreach programs, curricula, events, and publications.

The Coalition is committed to:

  • eliminating barriers to participation, extending equitable opportunities across all stakeholders, and ensuring that our practices and policies promote equitable treatment and do not allow, condone, or result in discrimination
  • creating and maintaining an environment that respects diverse traditions, heritages, and experiences
  • promoting diversity in all staff, volunteers, and audiences, including full participation in programs, policy formulation, and decision-making
  • raising awareness about career opportunities in our industries to groups who are currently underrepresented in the workforce
  • supporting our members in achieving diversity and inclusion within their organizations.

At MDPI we have slightly revised the layout for articles to be published in the 2021 Volume, starting at the end of December 2020. As of today, the article templates available for download on &lsquoInstructions for Authors&rsquo pages have been updated.

The most noticeable change can be found on the first page of the article, where a left-hand column has been created to include the following front matter elements: (i) the recommended citation style for the article, (ii) the publishing history, (iii) as well as the Creative Commons Attribution license used (iv) a standard note regarding affiliations. At the same time, the extra spacing on the left means the authors&rsquo affiliations are now more clearly set apart than before. Other front matter key elements such as journal logo, article type, article title, authors, abstract and keywords remain unchanged.

The blank column on the left runs through all pages in an article as a result, the main text is slightly more condensed, which improve reader friendliness for smaller screens. Small figures/tables are aligned on the left with standard indenture, while large figures/tables are centered and covering the full width of the page. The revised layout was applied in the article pictured below, to serve as an example:

1) Information is displayed in the left information bar.

2) In the main text, there is a blank column on the left.

3) Small tables/figures are aligned on the left, large tables/figures are centered.

We are pleased to acknowledge that many academic editors who have made an impact on MDPI journals as editorial board members, editors-in-chief, or section editors, are recognized as 2020 Highly Cited Researchers by Clarivate.

Highly Cited Researchers highlights the top 1% of researchers, by citations, in one or more of the 22 fields used in Clarivate Analytics Essential Science Indicators. We offer our congratulations to 279 academic editors of MDPI journals who were recognized as the most influential scholars in their fields in 2020.

Rosen, Marc A.
Rossolini, Gian Maria
Saad, Fred
Saad, Walid
Sadorsky, Perry
Sakthivel, Rathinasamy
Schwab, Matthias
Scolyer, Richard A.
Serra-Majem, Lluis
Sethi, Gautam
Seto, Karen C.
Settele, Josef
Seymour, John F.
Shi, Peng
Siano, Pierluigi
Sillanpää, Mika
Simal-Gandara, Jesus
Smagghe, Guy
Srivastava, Hari M.
Stadler, Peter F.
Sun, Fengchun
Sunderland, Elsie M.
Suzuki, Nobuhiro
Svenning, Jens-Christian
Tan, Weihong
Teixeira, José António
Thakur, Vijay Kumar
Tong, Shilu
Tornabene, Francesco
Tsao, Rong
Tukker, Arnold
Turskis, Zenonas
Uversky, Vladimir N.
van Wesemael, Bas
Van Zwieten, Lukas
Vangronsveld, Jaco
Varma, Rajender S.
Varshney, Rajeev K.
Vasquez, Juan C.
Velicogna, Isabella
Vieta, Eduard
Wade, Timothy J.
Wagner, Wolfgang
Wamba, Samuel Fosso
Wang, Chunsheng
Wang, Guoxiu
Wang, Joseph
Wang, Qi
Wang, Tao
Wang, Yuan
Wiens, John J.
Wu, Hao Bin
Wu, Hui
Wu, Tom
Wu, Zhongbiao
Xia, Xinhui
Xiao, Wenjiao
Xin, Sen
Xiong, Rui
Xu, Bin
Xu, Zeshui
Yan, Huaicheng
Yang, Bing
Yang, Hongxing
Yang, Jie
Yang, Xiao-Jun
Yin, Shen
Ying, Guang-Guo
Young, Allan H.
Yu, Guihua
Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.
Zavadskas, EdmundasKazimieras
Zeadally, Sherali
Zhang, Fan
Zhang, Liangpei
Zhang, Qichun
Zhang, Xian-Ming
Zhang, Yue-Jun
Zhao, Guochun
Zhao, Li-Dong
Zhu, Zhe
Zhuang, Xiaodong
Zou, Quan

The full list of 2020 Highly Cited Researchers can be accessed on

--- Highly Cited Researchers (HCR) is a Clarivate product.

We are delighted to announce the establishment of our Open Access agreement with Jisc Collections, which will allow UK institutions to benefit from access to article processing charge (APC) discounts and streamlined payment workflows.

All institutions participating in the agreement will also gain access to the MDPI online submission system where they can find full article metadata and pricing information for easy identification and additional transparency.

Eligible authors affiliated with the participating institutions are prompted to choose the corresponding Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP) when they submit an article via our online submission system.

Jisc's vision is for the UK to be the most digitally advanced education and research nation in the world. At its heart is the super-fast national research and education network, Janet, with built-in cyber security protection. Jisc also provides technology solutions for its members (colleges, universities and research centres) and customers (public sector bodies), helps members save time and money by negotiating sector-wide deals and provides advice and practical assistance on digital technology. Jisc is funded by the UK higher and further education and research funding bodies and member institutions.

For more information, contact [email protected]

MDPI is a publisher of fully peer-reviewed, Open Access journals with a focus on thorough and rapid editorial processing. Its aim is to ensure that high-quality research is verified and made available to the research community as quickly as possible. MDPI stands at the forefront of the Open Access movement, having launched its first online journal Molecules in 1996. Today, MDPI is a leader in Open Access publishing with over 250 journals across all research disciplines, and all content published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

For any questions about this agreement, please contact the MDPI IOAP team at [email protected] .

Since 1996, MDPI has been committed to supporting the research community by providing the latest research freely available and making relevant and useful research available as quickly as possible. The world is current experiencing a pandemic of COVID-19, and researchers are working extremely hard to understand it and find a cure.

The values MDPI holds strongly are particularly important at the moment, and we will continue to publish relevant, peer-reviewed research as quickly as possible in open access format. This means that it will immediately be available for researchers, health professionals, and the general public to read, distribute, and reuse. We believe that scientific advancements will be crucial to overcoming this pandemic, and will do everything we can to support researchers working looking for solutions.

COVID-19 Academic Resources Center contains a variety of information related to COVID-19 available from MDPI, including journal articles, special issues, and preprints, among others.

As a leading Open Access publisher, MDPI is committed to fostering open scientific exchange in all forms across all disciplines. Due to the outbreak of COVID-19, many researchers have to stay at home and many academic conferences have been cancelled or postponed. In light of these changes, MDPI has adopted numerous initiatives that may help accelerate scientific exchange and provide support to the academics during this period.

Scholarly Community&mdashEncyclopedia

Encyclopedia is an online reference created and curated by active scholars. It aims to highlight the latest research results as well as providing benchmark information for researchers and the general public interested in accurate and advanced knowledge on specific topics.

Comprehensive and Free Literature Database&mdashScilit

Scilit is a comprehensive, free database for scientists that uses a new method to collate data and index scientific material. Our crawlers extract the latest data from CrossRef and PubMed on a daily basis. This means that newly published articles are immediately added to Scilit.

Display Academic Achievements&mdashSciProfiles

SciProfiles is an innovative social network for researchers and scholars that is developed by MDPI. In line with our broad mission, the purpose of SciProfiles is to accelerate discovery and innovation by facilitating immediate access to research results and providing opportunities for academic networking.

Organize and Participate in Conferences Online&mdashSciforum

Sciforum is an event planning platform that supports open science by offering the opportunity to host and participate in academic conferences. It provides an environment for scholarly exchange, discussion of topics of current interest, building of networks, and establishing collaborations.

Post Early Versions of Research Outputs&mdashPreprints

Preprints is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. We post original research articles and comprehensive reviews, and papers can be updated by authors at any time. Content on Preprints is not peer-reviewed, and feedback can be received from readers.

MDPI remains committed to open science and open data and has signed a statement, along with more than thirty scholarly publishers, showing our intention to facilitate sharing of new research findings as early on as possible. The initiative sees publishers collectively removing barriers to new research, in the face of a global healthcare crisis.

The world is currently suffering from a global pandemic of the corona virus COVID-19. MDPI expresses its sympathies for all of those affected by the virus and stands in solidarity with medical staff and researchers treating patients and searching for scientific solutions.

MDPI has previously published papers covering corona viruses in addition to new papers on the current outbreak, see all papers here. In particular, Viruses has published a number of Special Issues and papers on the topic (see here, here, and here) as well as a forthcoming Special Issue.

Alongside journal articles, MDPI has been a strong supporter of preprints, which are increasingly being used to rapidly disseminate the latest research, and we run the preprint server Our database of research articles, Scilit, is free to use and covers all publishers including preprint servers. New papers are often in search results within hours of publication and users can set up alerts for new papers.

Our main priority during this period has been the health and safety of staff, and we continue to allow staff to work at home and closely monitor the situation in all locations in which we work. Despite the restrictions, we continue to provide a full publication service and, by close collaboration with our editorial boards and making use our in-house teams, ensure that there are no unnecessary delays in publishing vital research. Fast and open publication has always been at the core of MDPI values and is now more important than ever.

We hope that a solution to the current situation will emerge soon. In the meantime, we will do our best to continue communicating vital research in all fields.

The advantages of the open access model of scientific publishing are being increasingly recognized in the scientific community. It allows new scientific evidence to be accessed from the moment of publication for free by anyone around the globe, boosting the impact of new research. In response, many funders, libraries and universities have been adopting new principles to accelerate the transition to open access.

Recently, &ldquotransformative agreements&rdquo have been negotiated between traditional publishers and various institutions. While increasing the number of open access papers, these agreements lack binding commitments to a full transition to open access, their conditions vary across different regions, and access is still limited for many users.

MDPI is a co-signatory of the recent position statement raising concerns about potential downsides of transformative agreements and how they may delay a full transition to open access. The statement highlights that these models &ldquorisk perpetuating current limitations on access, transparency and market competitiveness, while simultaneously facilitating excessive charges on the public purse&rdquo.

As a pioneering open access journal publisher, MDPI is the first to promote the importance of science being made available to everyone. Our peer-reviewed journals, covering diverse academic disciplines, are fully accessible to the public free of charge under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). This is why, along with other open access publishers, MDPI is a proud signatory of the position paper and is committed to contributing to the replacement of weak transitional agreements with &ldquoagreements with publishers that are already fully committed to open science and who offer full, immediate and transparent Open Access&rdquo.

We are pleased to announce that Encyclopedia will be awarding five Outstanding Contributor Awards for researchers in 2020. The nominations and applications will be assessed by an Evaluation Committee consisting of senior scholars from the Encyclopedia Editorial Board.

Prize for Winners

  1. An official certificate
  2. A cash award of 500 CHF or an MDPI discount voucher of 800 CHF.

Application Deadline

31 December, 2020 (Please send your application email with a list of all entries you contributed to our office before the deadline: [email protected] )

Candidate Requirements

  1. Have a Ph.D. degree
  2. Have more than three qualified entries published in Encyclopedia in 2020.

Evaluation Standards

  1. Number of entries published in Encyclopedia in 2020
  2. Quality of entries online (including length, figure quality, and novelty)
  3. Impact of entries (including the number of likes, discussion contents, views, and downloads).

If you are a researcher and have not yet contribute entries to Encyclopedia, please do not miss this chance to highlight your research results.

MDPI will be attending EGU in Vienna, Austria on 3&ndash8 May 2020.

The EGU General Assembly 2020 will bring together geoscientists from all over the world to one meeting covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences. The EGU aims to provide a forum where scientists, especially early career researchers, can present their work and discuss their ideas with experts in all fields of geoscience.

The following MDPI journals will be represented:

MDPI will be attending the IGARSS 2020, to be held in Hawaii, USA, 19&ndash24 July 2020

Hosted by the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, the 2020 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2020) will be held Sunday, 19 July through Friday, 24 July, 2020 at the Hilton Waikoloa Village in Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. The main theme of the 2020 symposium is "Remote Sensing: Global Perspectives for Local Solutions".

GARSS 2020 is offering unique perspectives, discussions, research, solutions, and an opportunity to network in a beautiful environment.

The following MDPI journals will be represented:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (Booth # 82). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit

MDPI is pleased to announce the release of SciProfiles, its social network platform for researchers and scholars.

The purpose of SciProfiles is aligned with MDPI&rsquos broad mission to accelerate discovery and innovation by facilitating immediate access to research results and to serve scholars and communities by providing opportunities for academic networking.

SciProfiles also ambitions to serve as a sustainable, transparent and community-driven research evaluation system aligned with the DORA principles ( Through their scientific profiles, academics can highlight their contribution to research communities, and measure their impact on their field, beyond publication numbers and impact factors. SciProfiles is currently a beta version and will enrich to give researchers the possibility to highlight all of their contributions to science and their scientific communities as authors, reviewers, editors, conference organizers, conference panelists, conference keynote speakers, or even as lecturers or student mentors at their University.

The classic components of popular community social networks, including follower/following, classical metrics, endorsements and recommendations (, comments ( are or will be very soon highlighted in SciProfiles as open science contributions.

To help increase the impact and visibility of articles and their authors to an appropriate audience, the platform offers a NewsFeed that includes recommendations of relevant content based on interests, publication history, saved searches or colleagues&rsquo recommendations.

SciProfiles&rsquo avatars are now being integrated on several MDPI platforms, meaning that you will directly access researchers&rsquo profiles from any of the MDPI platforms:

MDPI's journal publishing website:
MDPI's conference hosting and management website:
MDPI's pre-print website :
MDPI's knowledge sharing website :
MDPI's books store:
MDPI's literature database :

SciProfiles aims to serve scientific communities at large. It can be embedded into third-party websites and also welcomes integration of data from third-parties.

We are delighted to announce the winners of the 2019 MDPI Writing Prize. Entrants were asked to write on the theme "Judging research: How should research and researchers be evaluated and rewarded?" We received a large number of excellent essays from PhD students and postdocs, and the process of shortlisting and choosing winners was not an easy one. The winners demonstrated excellent writing skills alongside interesting and thought-provoking ideas.

As last year, we will begin the process of collating all entries into a book that will be available in open access format. Alongside promoting good writing skills, we see the prize as a way to promote the voices of early career researchers within broader debates and policy discussions.

Congratulations to all of the participants and especially the winners. The winners are:

1st Prize (500 CHF):
Albin Nilsson (National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, Poland)
[Read here]

2nd Prize (250 CHF):
Qi Zhang (Shandong University, Jinan, China)
[Read here]
Igor Ogashawara (Indiana University, Indianapolis, US)
[Read here]

3rd Prize (100 CHF):
Margaret Sivapragasam (Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia)
[Read here]
Arvind Sharma (The University of Queensland, Gatton, Australia)
[Read here]
Jose Flores-Guerrero (University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands)
[Read here]

The MDPI Writing Prize is an annual award supported by MDPI Author Services, which provides services including language editing, reformatting, plagiarism checks, and image editing.

MDPI is pleased to announce the release of a new functionality giving the possibility for researchers and scholars to endorse, and formally recommend articles to their colleagues.

MDPI was an early signatory of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment ( which calls for improvement in how quality and impact of scholarly research outputs are evaluated, especially in moving beyond journal-based citation metrics (journal Impact Factor, Scopus Citescore, etc.).

MDPI supports the establishment of article-level impact metrics, including citations, views, downloads, and Altmetric scores. These measures serve as an impact indicator for research articles on a case&ndashby-case basis, assessing paper on its own merit. However, these metrics are also subjective and can give a biased picture of the article impact: they do not directly reflect the quality or the intrinsic scientific value of the article.

In our view, community engagement with publications based on community-driven metrics can help to overcome this limitation. We have therefore launched an option for scholars to endorse articles, indicating their own assessment of its content and making a recommendation to their community. This follows our implementation of the open source Hypothesis commenting tool, which has been available for all articles published by MDPI for over a year ( Both endorsement and commenting are available for all previously published and forthcoming MDPI articles.

In addition to potentially serving as a sustainable solution to article assessment, endorsements will help scientific communities to identify the most relevant articles, independently of the journal in which it was published.

The code for the endorsing functionality, which relies on DOIs and ORCIDs, will be made available on GitHub with an open source license.

Dr. Shu-Kun Lin, President and Founder
Dr. Franck Vazquez, Chief Scientific Officer
Dr. Martyn Rittman, Publishing Director

MDPI will be attending AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco, USA, 9&ndash13 December.

AGU Fall Meeting is the largest international Earth and space science meeting in the world. After two dynamic meetings in New Orleans and Washington, D.C., they return to the Moscone Centre in San Francisco.

This year&rsquos meeting will prepare you for what&rsquos ahead: rapid developments in our science, new approaches to observing our Earth and beyond, the introduction of new data streams, growing demand for accessible science, the expansion of convergent science, and more. AGU will celebrate the past and inspire the future by bringing together the people, the imagination, and the science that will ignite our next hundred years to make our planet safer, cleaner, and more sustainable.

The following MDPI journals will be represented:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (#1248). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit:

Create an Entry in Encyclopedia to Get a 100 CHF Voucher in Publishing in MDPI Journals

Encyclopedia is a free online reference created and curated by active scholars. It aims to highlight the latest research results as well as provide a comprehensive record of scientific development. If you have any suggestions or questions, please feel free to contact us via [email protected] .

We are pleased to announce that Preprints has passed the milestone of 10,000 posted preprints. We are delighted to have reached this after just over three years of operation. Our congratulations and thanks go to our authors and advisory board who have supported growth of the platform and been crucial to its operation.

Last week, the DeepGreen initiative in Germany started into an advanced test phase with the publishing partners S. Karger AG, SAGE Publishing, MDPI, Frontiers and De Gruyter, as well as 27 universities from all over Germany, from Hamburg University of Applied Sciences to University of Konstanz.

DeepGreen aims at lowering the barriers for open access publishing by automatically delivering metadata and full text publications from participating publishers to authorized repositories at German universities.

In preparation for a later live operation, the advanced test phase serves to gain experience with extensive data deliveries from publishers and also handling different repository software (including OPUS4, DSpace, EPrints, MyCoRe). DeepGreen thereby acts as a sophisticated platform, receiving articles published by authors affiliated with German universities and depositing these articles to respective university repositories, based on the affiliation metadata. For more information about DeepGreen:

Karger AG has been a close cooperation partner of the DeepGreen consortium since 2016. S. Karger has more than 80 subscription-based and around 20 open access journals covering a wide spectrum in health science. DeepGreen will assign S. Karger articles to authorized institutions on the legal basis of German alliance and national licenses.

SAGE Publishing was founded by Sara Miller McCune in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. SAGE publishes more than 1,000 journals and over 600 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data, case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures the company&rsquos continued independence. Principal offices are located in Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC and Melbourne. SAGE Publishing has been a close cooperation partner of DeepGreen since 2016.

MDPI is a scientific open access publisher and has been a partner of DeepGreen since 2017. MDPI comprises 205 peer-reviewed journals of various disciplines. All articles are published under a CC-BY license and are freely available without embargo period.

Frontiers is a scientific open access publisher with 61 journals of over 600 academic disciplines. All articles are peer-reviewed and published freely available under CC-BY license.

De Gruyter is an academic publisher with more than 700 subscription-based and open access journals of 29 disciplines. Articles provided by De Gruyter will be assigned to institutions with German alliance and national licenses.

There is promising communication with other publishers.

DeepGreen is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the consortium comprises six institutions: the Cooperative Library Network Berlin-Brandenburg, Bavarian State Library, Bavarian Library Network, University Library of the Technische Universität Berlin, University Library of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the Helmholtz Open Science Coordination Office at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.

If you would like to know in more detail which institutions take part in the advanced test phase of DeepGreen, you can find more information here.

The University of Basel and the MDPI Sustainability Foundation are organizing the First Basel Sustainable Publishing Forum on 9th September 2019.

The aim of this event is to provide background and perspectives on Plan S to Learned Societies, which have to make well-informed decisions to transition their journals to Open Access (OA).

The BSPF will bring together several representatives of Learned societies, Plan S architects as well as representatives from various publishers and publishing platforms. After getting the big picture from cOAlition S, panel discussions will allow to better understand the diverse challenges that Learned societies are facing to transition their journals to OA as well as to identify sustainable, implementable and scalable solutions for successful Open Access transition.

We will be attending Goldschmidt2019, to be held in the Centre de Convencions Internacional de Barcelona (CCIB), Barcelona, Spain, on 18&ndash23 August 2019. Goldschmidt is the foremost annual, international conference on geochemistry and related subjects, organized by the European Association of Geochemistry and the Geochemical Society. Representatives from the following open-access journals will be attending:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (booth #35). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit

MDPI will be attending the AbSciCon 2019 conference, which will take place in Seattle, Washington, from June 24 to 28, 2019, representing the following open access journals:

If you are planning to attend, please visit our Booth #6, to talk to our editors about our journals and open access publishing. Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person!

For more information about the conference, please visit:

, MDPI&rsquos open access earth and planetary science journal, has published more than 1000 articles and reviews since its inception in 2011. Geosciences is now covered in Sources Citation Index (ESCI) and Scopus.

Geosciences' current CiteScore (2019) in Scopus is 1.79. The CiteScore is calculated by dividing the number of citations for published papers by the number of published papers in the previous three years (2016&ndash2018), as drawn from Scopus data. Full-text article pages were accessed more than 50,000 times in March and April 2019.

Our sincere thanks go to the Editor-in-Chief of Geosciences, Prof. Dr. Jesus Martinez-Frias, Section Editor-in-Chiefs, Associate Editors, and all Editorial Board members, as well as the numerous Guest Editors of Special Issues, who ensure the continued significance of the journal.

Oceans is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal which is aiming to provide cutting-edge research related to all aspects of oceanography. We are now seeking a founding Editor-in-Chief to develop Oceans into a leading flagship journal in this field.

The main responsibilities of the Editor-in-Chief include the following:

  • Setting the scope and direction of the journal
  • Advising on the strategic development of the journal
  • Ensuring the quality of the published content
  • Coordinating the Editorial Board and stimulating their contributions to the journal
  • Promoting the journal at scientific conferences and through other venues

A full application for evaluation should include these items:

Applications are due by 9th July 2019. Please send your application or any questions to the Oceans Editorial Office ( [email protected] ).

We will attend the Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2019 (JpGU 2019). It will be held at the Makuhari Messe, International Convention Complex in Chiba, Japan, on 26&ndash30 May 2019, and will be organized by the Japan Geoscience Union (JpGU). JpGU is an academic union that encompasses all the Earth and planetary sciences disciplines and related fields, and has been organizing annual meetings since 2005. JpGU 2019 will cover a wide range of Earth and planetary sciences, including space and planetary sciences, atmospheric and hydrospheric sciences, human geosciences, solid Earth sciences, and biogeosciences. The JpGU annual meeting provides participants with a good opportunity to become familiar with cutting-edge research and unique approaches to research objects within their own special field as well as beyond. Representatives of the following open-access journals will attend:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (booth #Pub15). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit

MDPI will be attending the 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, to be held in Yokohama, Japan, 28 July &ndash 2 August 2019.

This conference will be the 39th annual IGARSS symposium and will continue the excellent tradition of gathering world-class scientists, engineers and educators engaged in the fields of geoscience and remote sensing. We believe that the additional scientific themes of this event, focusing on 'Disasters and Environment' will allow the formation of an inspiring technical program.

IGARSS is recognized today as a premier event in remote sensing and provides an ideal forum for obtaining up-to-date information about the latest developments, exchanging ideas, identifying future trends in your research area and making contacts with the international remote sensing community. With intensive and careful planning underway we anticipate a technically outstanding and most pleasant symposium.

The following MDPI journals will be represented:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (Booth # 30). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit

We are pleased to welcome more universities from Poland, Italy, Germany, Brazil and other parts of the world to MDPI's Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP). A warm welcome to the institutions listed below, who have joined the Program in February and March this year.

James Madison University (JMU), Harrisonburg USA
Loughborough University UK
Lublin University of Technology Poland
Marquette University, Milwaukee USA
Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand
Medical College of Wisconsin USA
Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń Poland
Poznań University of Life Sciences Poland
Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin Germany
Rothamsted Research, Harpenden UK
Santa Clara University (SCU) USA
Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau Germany
University of Aveiro Portugal
University of Brasília Brazil
University of Duisburg-Essen Germany
University of Greifswald Germany
University of Molise Italy
University of Naples Parthenope Italy
University of São Paulo (USP) - São Carlos Institute of Physics Brazil
University of Szczecin Poland
University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn Poland
University West, Trollhättan Sweden
UTP University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz Poland
VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland Finland

Authors affiliated with these institutions can now enjoy a discount on the APC for papers accepted for publication in any MDPI journal. If you would like to learn more about our program, please visit: or email us at [email protected] .

We are delighted to announce our participation in Jisc&rsquos Publication Router project, as of March 2019.

Publications Router is a Jisc service that automatically sends notifications about research articles to institutions' systems such as their repositories or CRISs, since May 2015. Through this agreement, MDPI will provide Jisc with daily feeds and information regarding published articles, which will be gathered by their system and delivered to institutions also registered to this service. Nearly all of our articles are published within 15 days of acceptance, so institutions will receive them quite promptly.

The feed will include the full text of the published version of record, with no embargo, so the articles can be exposed immediately for public view. They are accompanied by rich metadata, including confirmation of the immediate CC BY licence, minimising the need for any manual intervention or checking.

For more information about Publications Router, you may contact Jisc&rsquos central helpdesk at [email protected] . For any queries about MDPI&rsquos institutional agreements and collaborations, you may get in touch with MDPI&rsquos Institutional Engagement team at [email protected] , which would be very happy to hear from further UK institutions.

Rigorous peer-review is the cornerstone of high quality academic publishing. Over 97,000 scholars served as reviewers for MDPI journals in 2018. We are extremely appreciative of all those who made a contribution to the editorial process in this capacity. At the beginning of every year, journal editorial offices publish a list all reviewers&rsquo names to express our gratitude. In addition, this year the &ldquoMDPI Top Reviewer Awards&rdquo are announced, to recognize the very best reviewers for their expertise, dedication, high quality, and timely review reports. We are pleased to announce the following winners of the 2018 MDPI Top Reviewer Awards:

  • Ali Behnood
  • Andrea Pezzuolo
  • Angela Gorgoglione
  • Anna D'Auria
  • Antonio D'Andrea
  • Azhar Abbas
  • Bogdan Zagajewski
  • Chunhui Chen
  • Dominika Głąbska
  • Dominika Guzek
  • Dragan Pamucar
  • Francisco J. G. Silva
  • Frank Li
  • Gianluca Serafini
  • Gyorgy Szekely
  • Haozhi Pan
  • Helvi Heinonen-Tanski
  • José Manuel Gómez-Soberón
  • Kathy Lewis
  • Klara Kosova
  • Luis N. López De Lacalle
  • M. Z. Naser
  • Malwina Tytła
  • Masoume Amirkhani
  • Matteo Ghidelli
  • Moretti Laura
  • Petra Schneider
  • Roberto Cerchione
  • Spyros Papaefthymiou
  • Ştefan Cristian Gherghina

Since 2010, MDPI has run its own online submission system. More recently, we have made the software, with accompanying publishing services, available to other publishers as JAMS (Journal and Article Management System). We are now delighted to announce the launch of JAMS Journals, a standardized platform for operating open access journals at low cost.

JAMS Journals provides a comprehensive service, including a shared submission website, journal websites hosted at a URL provided by the publisher, and a full production service. There is a small setup fee and the cost for each published paper is just a few hundred Swiss francs.

The platform demonstrates that running an open access journal can be straightforward and affordable. The JAMS Journals platform is suitable for

  • small publishers or groups of scholars looking to launch their own journal
  • existing publishers or societies seeking to explore open access options
  • publishers looking to convert an existing subscription journal to open access.

JAMS journals launches with two journals from Canadian-based publisher Etcetera Publications:

  • Canadian Journal of Pesticides & Pest Management (
  • Nanotechnology in Agriculture, Food & Environment (

Dr AJ Al-Rajab (President of Etcetera Publications) comments:

&ldquoIn the past few months, we were working on our project to launch new open access scientific journals in the field of agricultural and environmental sciences. We decided to go with JAMS for this venture because of the high quality of their services, reasonable prices, professionalism and easy communication. Our portfolio is expected to grow rapidly during 2019 to include more titles covering different areas in agriculture and environment. MDPI earned already our complete satisfaction and we are looking for a long term cooperation.&rdquo

Alongside the new platform, we continue to provide flexible, tailored journal management solutions for existing publishers. For any questions or to request a quotation, contact Dr. Constanze Schelhorn ( [email protected] ).

2018 was a great year for preprints, with increasing numbers of authors looking to make their papers available online before peer review. Along with other preprint servers, our platform saw an increase in the uptake from authors, and more than double the number of announced papers compared to 2017. In fact, we recently passed two important milestones: 8000 preprints online and 30,000 authors.

We believe that the whole research community has the opportunity to benefit from work being available online as early as possible. We thank and congratulate our authors for supporting us to make this goal a reality.

In 2019, we will be looking carefully at how to provide better value for authors, maintain efficiency while growing in size, and make sure we remain well-connected with the research community.

If you want to participate, you can consider screening preprints or joining our advisory board. And, of course, posting your own work.

We are delighted to announce the establishment of our national Open Access agreement with the Austrian Academic Library Consortium (KEMÖ) and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). Through this national agreement, the Austrian institutions listed below as well as FWF will cover the Article Processing Charges (APC) of manuscripts published by eligible corresponding or funded authors in MDPI journals as long as central funds are available.

All participating institutions have gained access to the MDPI online submission system where they can find full article metadata and pricing information as well as Funder and Grant ID details for easy identification and additional transparency. At the same time eligible authors are benefited from an APC discount which comes at no cost for the institutions.

Eligible corresponding authors affiliated with the participating institutions are prompted to choose the corresponding Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP) when they submit an article via our online submission system. The program will be selected automatically if authors submit their papers using their institutional email address. To claim their discount, FWF funded authors should choose the particular funder and add their Grant ID upon online submission of their manuscript. The institutions will then crosscheck the information and confirm the APC funding.

Eligible authors that have their APC covered by their institution or funder are advised to include the following sentence in their acknowledgments: "Open Access Funding by the [name of the institution/funder]".

The full text of the agreement is openly available online at:

For any questions about the agreement, please contact the KEMÖ Consortium at [email protected], FWF at [email protected], or the MDPI IOAP team at [email protected]

The Austrian institutions participating in this agreement are:

  • Austrian Science Fund (FWF)
  • University for Continuing Education Krems
  • University of Applied Sciences BFI Vienna
  • University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria
  • University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien
  • Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences
  • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
  • MCI Management Center Innsbruck
  • University of Graz
  • University of Linz
  • University of Salzburg
  • Graz University of Technology
  • TU Wien
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
  • University of Vienna

This is our first collective agreement with a national library consortium, while the individual institutions around the world participating in our IOAP are now more than 500 - see details here: We would be mostly interested in discussing about possible collaborations with other consortia, funders, and institutions in our mutual efforts to accelerate Open Access.

We are pleased to announce the new platform Encyclopedia, which is an online reference created and curated by active scholars. It aims to highlight the latest research results as well as providing benchmark information for researchers and the general public interested in accurate and advanced knowledge on specific topics.

We encourage authors of review articles to quote and adapt the content of their published papers to create Encyclopedia entries. You can create completely new entries on topics in which you have knowledge and expertise. There is no limit on the topics or research fields. All of science and the humanities are included. Each entry will be published directly after submission.

We also have prepared a DOI application function in Encyclopedia. Once a DOI application is approved, the entry website will announce the DOI number and a pdf version with DOI information will be automatically created.

We look forward to your contributions and hope you will make use of this service. Find more about the service at:

We are delighted to announce that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) is now a participant of our Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP). Authors funded by the BMGF can enjoy discounts on the APC, while the funder covers the costs of eligible articles centrally. BMGF also has access to the MDPI online submission system where they can find full article metadata and pricing information as well as Grant ID details for easy identification and additional transparency.

We hope that funded authors find the programme beneficial and we are happy to offer our IOAP to other funders that need a streamlined workflow of compliance checking and APC coverage.

To claim their discount, BMGF funded authors should choose the particular funder and add their Grant ID upon online submission of their manuscript.

For any questions about the BMGF agreement, please contact the funder at [email protected] or the MDPI IOAP team at [email protected] .

Recently, it was announced that a group of European funders supported 10 principles that will help to expand open access, known as Plan S. MDPI warmly welcomes this move as a step towards achieving more open and accessible communication of research across all disciplines. Some aspects remain to be clarified, however the details given so far match the aims and values that MDPI has held over the past two decades.

We believe that open access publishers should be active participants in discussions around Plan S, particularly regarding potential new business models and practical aspects of implementation. MDPI supports APCs as a transparent unit of payment for article publishing, however we are committed to exploring other measures and recently signed the Jussieu Call. Sustainability is a key value for MDPI, and future funding models should have at their heart the sustainability of knowledge and research dissemination. Plan S provides an opportunity for funders and publishers to directly discuss funding of open access journals in ways that are beneficial to all parties involved.

We are happy to announce the establishment of an Open Access (OA) agreement with Qatar National Library (QNL). QNL is committed to supporting and helping Qatar authors publish OA at no cost. Through this national agreement, QNL will cover the Article Processing Charges (APC) of manuscripts published by Qatar-based corresponding authors in MDPI journals.

Eligible corresponding authors affiliated with Qatar research centers and universities are prompted to choose QNL as part of our Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP) when they submit an article via our online submission system. The program will be selected automatically if authors submit their papers using their institutional email and/or a computer registered with the institution&rsquos IP range. QNL will then crosscheck the information and confirm the APC funding.

Qatar authors that have their APC covered by QNL are advised to include the following sentence in their acknowledgments: "The publication of this article was funded by Qatar National Library".

For more information, please visit Open Access at QNL or email the QNL Open Access team at [email protected] .

We will be attending the Goldschmidt 2018. Goldschmidt is the foremost annual, international conference on geochemistry and related subjects, organized by the Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemistry. The Goldschmidt Conferences&trade were started in 1988 by the international Geochemical Society (GS) to provide a forum for its members to discuss their latest research. Each year, the conference brings together thousands of scientists from throughout the world to talk about subjects including the origin of the Earth and planets, the chemical processes that have shaped Earth's evolution over time, the interconnections between life and the physical world, the search for new resources, and the environmental challenges facing today's world. Representatives of the following open access journals will attend:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (Booth #18). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit:

MDPI will be attending the AGU 2018 Fall Meeting, to be held in Washington D.C, USA, 10‒14 December 2018.

The AGU 2018 Fall Meeting will mark another dynamic year of discovery in Earth and space science, serve as the advent of AGU&rsquos Centennial year, and provide a special opportunity to share our science with world leaders in Washington, D.C. As the largest Earth and space science gathering in the world, the Fall Meeting places you in the center of a global community of scientists drawn from myriad fields of study whose work protects the health and welfare of people worldwide, spurs innovation, and informs decisions that are critical to the sustainability of the Earth.

The following MDPI journals will be represented:

If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth (Booth # 737). Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may hace. For more information about the conference, please visit:

We are pleased to report Geosciences received a CiteScore of 1.97 for 2017. The metric reflects citation activity in 2017 in Scopus for papers published in the period 2014‒2016.

For the full details in the current CiteScore release, please see the journal's Source profile. To check the full list of MDPI journals receiving CiteScores, please see here.

The 2017 CiteScore&trade data is available now, based on citation data in the Scopus® database. The current CiteScore reflects citation activity in 2017 for articles published in 2014‒2016. Please note that the list below includes journals assigned a CiteScore in this year&rsquos release. For a full list of journals indexed in Scopus, please see our journal list.

Thirteen of our journals received a CiteScore which is in the top 10% of the distribution in at least one of the categories (marked with * in the table below), while a further 32 journals exhibit scores that are in the first quartile of the respective categories.

To access the full data for MDPI journals, please see here. More data can also be found in SJR Scimago Journal & Country Rank.

Unlike CiteScores and the widely used Journal Impact Factors, the Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) metrics are normalized in order to correct for differences in citation practices between scientific fields. Therefore, the SNIP allows direct comparison between journals specialized in different fields.

According to 2017 data, MDPI publishes six journals with an average citation impact, or SNIP, in excess of 1.500. These journals are Biomolecules, Cancers, Journal of Clinical Medicine (JCM), Marine Drugs, Remote Sensing and Sensors (see the last column in the table below).

The New Geosciences Program

The newly expanded curriculum comprises a total of six “options” that allow students to concentrate on different topics in geosciences. Included are two brand new options, one in Environmental and Engineering Geosciences, and another in Geobiology and Paleobiology. They join the four existing options in Earth Science Education, Geochemistry, Geology, and Geophysics, which have also been revised and updated.

After collecting feedback from recent alumni and employers, the Department has developed a new option called Environmental and Engineering Geosciences that is designed to put majors on a direct path to become licensed as a professional geologist. This option will provide students with the necessary skills to pursue careers in environmental and geotechnical consulting, the energy and mining sectors, or with government research or regulatory agencies.

A new option in Geobiology and Paleobiology is for students who are passionate about understanding the interactions of life and the environment throughout Earth history. In addition to studying topics in biology and geology, students apply state-of-the-art imaging and other analytical tools to characterize and reconstruct past life. Careers include environmental consulting, research at universities and museums, journalism, and further training in medical, dental, and veterinary school.

The previously existing four options in Earth Science Education, Geochemistry, Geology, and Geophysics have also been revised to attract and meet the needs of new majors. Two of the options are designed to give students a broad base in geosciences. The Geology option trains students to think generally and critically about the integration of Earth processes happening today and in the past. The knowledge and skills developed can be used to explain past and present phenomena and solve current and future geological problems. Earth Science Education is perfect for those students who see themselves as future K-12 educators. In addition to geosciences content knowledge, students learn pedagogical methods and gain practical experience in formal and informal educational settings.

Two more specialized options are tailored for students with interests in the physical sciences. Geochemistry is ideal for students who enjoy chemistry and are interested in applying chemical knowledge, tools, and methods to geoscience questions and environmental problems. Likewise, students in Geophysics use principles of physics to probe Earth’s interior, study important processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, and tectonics, and explore for new economic resources. They also investigate how the Earth’s surface and subsurface are affected by climate extremes and human activities.

Explore the World Through Geosciences

Geoscience expertise allows us to better understand and predict the interactions between people and Earth’s systems such expertise is essential to developing solutions to critical economic, environmental, health, and safety challenges.

Students in the Department of Geosciences gain hands-on skills through course work, field work, internships, and volunteer work. Students apply what they learn, and develop important skills essential to the work that they will pursue after graduation.

The Geosciences program permits individual attention and strong student-professor interaction. Classes are made interactive by field trips, visiting speakers, and informal career discussions.

Welcome to The Warner College of Natural Resources

A message for Dean John Hayes

Black Rams Matter: A note of solidarity

The Department of Geosciences stands in solidarity with our university and college in the recognition of longstanding inequity and discrimination and is committed to advocating for and building a just and equitable future. The department is an active partner in the Warner College’s Diversity and Inclusion programs.

Front matter

To borrow an old right-wing talking point, these people are angry no matter what we do.

In front of this strange structure are two blank-faced, well-dressed models showing off the latest in European minimalism.

As the protagonist gets herself off in front of her impotent husband, she moans “Oh, Gronky.”

Granted, James is in an office in the Pentagon, and not on the front lines.

The next phase of the trial consists of vaccinating Ebola workers on the front lines.

Then there was Wee Wo,—he was a little Chinese chap, and we used to send him down the chimneys to open front doors for us.

I assure you, no matter how beautifully we play any piece, the minute Liszt plays it, you would scarcely recognize it!

I hate to be long at my toilette at any time but to delay much in such a matter while travelling is folly.

Off went the officers again, some distance to the front, and then back again to their men, and got them on a little further.

“And the matter of the will was all disposed of by the probate judge today, I hear,” said the judge, his hand on the door.

What is an ISBN and how many do I need?

Front matter is information about a book which precedes the main text. Front matter includes the title pages, the writer’s name, the edition, the publication date, the copyright details, the ISBN, and the publisher’s name and logo. It may also include a testimonial, disclaimer, dedication, acknowledgement, contents page, foreword, preface, and introduction.

Back matter is information about a book and the writer which follows the end of the main text. Back matter includes a blurb, writer biography (which may include a photo), testimonial quotes, barcode, ISBN, quotes or extracts from the book, and the publisher’s name and logo. Depending on the genre, the back matter may also include an afterword, appendix, glossary, index, bibliography and advertising about the author or publisher’s other books.

Authors who DIY in self-publishing sometimes forget to add front matter and back matter. There may be no consequence for this, as we are in a new digital age where traditional ways of doing things are only useful when they’re needed. However, it is our opinion that front and back matter usually make a book or ebook better. Why?

Optimizing Your Front Matter and Back Matter

Writing your book is the first step in your self-publishing journey, but in order to really sell books, you have to think like a publisher. This means engineering your book so that it’s a marketing tool itself. Optimizing your front matter and back matter makes this possible.

While there is no official right or wrong way to set up your front and back matter, here are some crucial pages to include:

Front Matter

Copyright Page: This should include the book title, author name, link to your website, year of publication, and basic copyright language. This gives your book a professional touch, and lets readers know that you have an official website*.

*By the way – your author website is another important marketing tool it forms the foundation of your online presence. It should make it easy for readers to: 1). Sign up for your mailing list, 2). Buy your books. Make sure your author website is designed with these key elements in mind.

Table of Contents: If you want happy readers, then you’ll need to give them a good user experience. The point of including a table of contents is to make it easy for readers to navigate your book.

Be sure to double check your hyperlinks and make sure they link to the correct chapters. Since ebooks have reflowable text, there is no need to include page numbers. Most ebook retailers require a functioning table of contents, so this isn’t a step you’ll want to skip.

(Note: if you don’t know how to create a table of contents – no problem. Use our free ebook converter and we’ll create a table of contents based on your manuscript’s headings).

Mailing List/Newsletter Sign-Up: Mailing List/Newsletter Sign-Up: Collecting email sign-ups is so important that you should include your mailing list link in your book front and back matter

Back Matter

“Thank You” Page with Review Prompt: Reviews help sell books and build trust they are crucial if you want to seriously make a living as a self-published author. The first page of your back matter should thank the reader for reading your book, and include a friendly line that asks them to share their thoughts by posting an online review. But remember: never incentivize reader reviews.

Mailing List/Newsletter Sign-Up: Collecting email sign-ups is so important that you should include your mailing list link in your front matter and back matter.

List of Previous Works: If a reader enjoyed your book, chances are they’ll like your other work. Include buy links to directly market readers who are already primed to buy.

(Note: if the book is part of a series, include a line that says something like, “Best enjoyed if read in the order listed,” and then list your books in the proper reading order. This helps the reader and can improve sell-through).

Preview of Next Book: If possible, include an excerpt from your next book in the back matter. This works particularly well for series, but it’s a great marketing technique even for stand-alone books. At the end of the excerpt, include a buy link.

The great thing about self-publishing is that you can update your back matter whenever you want, so you can build upon your marketing efforts. For instance, whenever I launch a new book, I typically update my back matter on the previous book to include an excerpt for the new book.

(Note: If you’re enrolled in KDP Select/Kindle Unlimited, you cannot make more than 10% of the enrolled book available anywhere. Be sure your excerpt only includes 10% or less of the book’s content for Amazon-exclusive books).

Bio/About Page: Include an “About the Author” page to leave readers with a lasting impression of your brand. Remember, your back matter should be strategic, so even your author bio can be a marketing tool. Create an author bio that aligns with your brand and appeals to readers in your genre. If you’re struggling with this, read our step-by-step guide to writing the perfect author bio.

Once you’ve perfected your front matter order, you’re ready to hit “Publish.” If you distribute through PublishDrive, we can list your book in over 400 online stores, including Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Apple Books, Google Play, and Kobo. We also offer free ebook conversion, royalty splitting for co-authors, and built-in marketing tools to boost sales.

Watch the video: Project Happiness: Τα πρώτα βήματα για να χτίσω σπίτι από την Αγγελική Λω (October 2021).