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Web Application with data editing capabilities by users stored in Geoserver


I have been using GeoExt/Extjs/Openlayers/Geoserver for some time.I have created a web application for mapping features in a county.I wanted to know whether there is a way I can add (edting/Addnew feature) capabilities on my application with authentication which reads the users on Geoserver.

This is how I expect it to work; All viewers can see the features but when they click on addNew button , an authentication window pops up for them to login.The people allowed to edit are the users of the office whose usernames and passwords are on Geoserver.

Is this possible and if yes, how?


GeoNode

GeoNode is a web-based application and platform for developing geospatial information systems (GIS) and for deploying spatial data infrastructures (SDI).

It is designed to be extended and modified, and can be integrated into existing platforms.

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    GeoNode is a geospatial content management system, a platform for the management and publication of geospatial data. It brings together mature and stable open-source software projects under a consistent and easy-to-use interface allowing non-specialized users to share data and create interactive maps.

    Data management tools built into GeoNode allow for integrated creation of data, metadata, and map visualizations. Each dataset in the system can be shared publicly or restricted to allow access to only specific users. Social features like user profiles and commenting and rating systems allow for the development of communities around each platform to facilitate the use, management, and quality control of the data the GeoNode instance contains.

    It is also designed to be a flexible platform that software developers can extend, modify or integrate against to meet requirements in their own applications.


    Service Levels¶

    WFS configuration options - Service Level section ¶

    GeoServer is compliant with the full “Transactional Web Feature Server” (WFS-T) level of service as defined by the OGC. Specifying the WFS service level limits the capabilities of GeoServer while still remaining compliant. The WFS Service Level setting defines what WFS operations are “turned on”.

    Basic — Basic service levels provides facilities for searching and retrieving feature data with the GetCapabilities, DescribeFeatureType and GetFeature operations. It is compliant with the OGC basic Web Feature Service. This is considered a READ-ONLY web feature service.

    Transactional — In addition to all basic WFS operations, transactional service level supports transaction requests. A transaction request facilitates the creation, deletion, and updating of geographic features in conformance with the OGC Transactional Web Feature Service (WFS-T).

    Complete — Includes LockFeature support to the suite of transactional level operations. LockFeature operations help resolve links between related resources by processing lock requests on one or more instances of a feature type.


    Free and Open Source GIS Mapping Software Program Applications

    Open Source and freeware GIS software applications. Download GIS software for your mapping projects.

    Geocoding - Map Channels offers free single address and batch geocoding.

    GEODAS (GEOphysical DAta System) data management system can be run in Microsoft Windows, UNIX Xwindows and Macintosh OS-X environments. GEODAS software accesses all GEODAS Databases, including Marine Trackline Geophysics, NOS Hydrographic Surveys, Coastal Relief Model, ETOPO2 Gridded Elevations and Great Lakes Bathymetry DVD sets.

    Geodetic software developed by the National Geodetic Survey (NCS). Free downloads - dozens of programs.

    Geopublisher Software allows you to quickly create digital multimedia atlases and publish them. Visit the demo atlases page to take a look at some publically available atlases or check out the features list to get an impression about the possibilities.

    GeoServer - GeoServer is an Open Source server that connects your information to the Geospatial Web. You can publish and edit data using open standards. Your information is made available in a large variety of formats as maps/images or actual geospatial data.

    Geospatial Explorer has been written to enable geologists, environmental scientists, and engineers to apply innovative science and technology to enhance and expedite the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. Geospatial Explorer permits the user to identify, understand, and solve complex environmental problems better, faster, and cheaper.

    Geographic Translator (GEOTRANS) is an application program which allows users to easily convert geographic coordinates among a wide variety of coordinate systems, map projections, and datums. GEOTRANS runs in both Microsoft Windows (95/98/NT) and UNIX Motif environments.

    geos (Geometry Engine Open Source (GEOS)) is a C++ port of the Java Topology Suite (JTS). As such, it aims to contain the complete functionality of JTS in C++. This includes all the OpenGIS "Simple Features for SQL" spatial predicate functions and spatial operators, as well as specific JTS topology functions such as IsValid().

    GeoTools is Java code library which provides standards compliant methods for the manipulation of geospatial data, for example to implement Geographic Information Systems. The GeoTools library implements OGC specifications as they are developed, in close collaboration with the GeoAPI and GeoWidgets projects.

    GeoVISTA Studio is an open software development environment designed for geospatial data. Studio is a programming-free environment that allows users to quickly build applications for geocomputation and geographic visualization.

    GeOxygene aims at providing an open framework which implements OGC/ISO specifications for the development and deployment of geographic (GIS) applications.

    GIS ObjectLand is a universal Geographic Information System for Windows. It processes data organized as geoinformation database (GDB). Basic GDB components are maps, themes, tables, queries, external databases, layouts, users, and styles. Free non-commercial license.

    Didn't find what you are looking for? We've been online since 1996 and have created 1000's of pages. Search below and you may find just what you are looking for.

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    Data Research & GIS Specialist

    MapCruzin.com is an independent firm specializing in GIS project development and data research. We created the first U.S. based interactive toxic chemical facility maps on the internet in 1996 and we have been online ever since. Learn more about us and our services.

    Have a project in mind? If you have data, GIS project or custom shapefile needs contact Mike.

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    4 Questions

    Most threat model methodologies answer one or more of the following questions in the technical steps which they follow:

    What are we building?

    As a starting point you need to define the scope of the Threat Model. To do that you need to understand the application you are building, examples of helpful techniques are:

    • Architecture diagrams
    • Dataflow transitions
    • Data classifications
    • You will also need to gather people from different roles with sufficient technical and risk awareness to agree on the framework to be used during the Threat modeling exercise.

    What can go wrong?

    This is a “research” activity in which you want to find the main threats that apply to your application. There are many ways to approach the question, including brainstorming or using a structure to help think it through. Structures that can help include STRIDE, Kill Chains, CAPEC and others.

    What are we going to do about that?

    In this phase you turn your findings into specific actions. See Threat_Modeling_Outputs

    Did we do a good enough job?

    Finally, carry out a retrospective activity over the work you have done to check quality, feasibility, progress, and/or planning.


    How long is the data kept?

    Raw data points (that is, items that you can query in Analytics and inspect in Search) are kept for up to 730 days. You can select a retention duration of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 270, 365, 550 or 730 days. If you need to keep data longer than 730 days, you can use Continuous Export to copy it to a storage account during data ingestion.

    Data kept longer than 90 days will incur addition charges. Learn more about Application Insights pricing on the Azure Monitor pricing page.

    Aggregated data (that is, counts, averages and other statistical data that you see in Metric Explorer) are retained at a grain of 1 minute for 90 days.

    Debug snapshots are stored for 15 days. This retention policy is set on a per-application basis. If you need to increase this value, you can request an increase by opening a support case in the Azure portal.


    Bdfyjk

    I have migrated my GeoServer + PostGIS to another machine. In terms of geoserver I start new instance of GeoServer and copied all content to data_dir. After this operation I have observed that some GeoServer functionalities did not work properly i.e. pages with layer, layer preview and Server status did not open. I have access to workspaces and stores pages but when I try to change PostGIS connection parameters in PostGIS stores I get following error:


    Error saving data store:Failed to upgrade lock from read to write state, please re-try the configuration operation


    PostGIS connection parameters are correct and working well.

    In log I just find only three repeated warnings for all opened layers:


    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=topojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/x-protobuftype=mapbox-vector' for
    component: [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale:
    null, style: null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,170 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=geojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null


    How do I make this kind of migration of GeoServer with PostGIS parameters changes without this error? Is there any solution for this error?

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information

    Good Idea. I turn on logs at production level configuration and did not doscover any special errors - only warnings for any opened layer like this: WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find property. Full log in link above

    I have migrated my GeoServer + PostGIS to another machine. In terms of geoserver I start new instance of GeoServer and copied all content to data_dir. After this operation I have observed that some GeoServer functionalities did not work properly i.e. pages with layer, layer preview and Server status did not open. I have access to workspaces and stores pages but when I try to change PostGIS connection parameters in PostGIS stores I get following error:


    Error saving data store:Failed to upgrade lock from read to write state, please re-try the configuration operation


    PostGIS connection parameters are correct and working well.

    In log I just find only three repeated warnings for all opened layers:


    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=topojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/x-protobuftype=mapbox-vector' for
    component: [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale:
    null, style: null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,170 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=geojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null


    How do I make this kind of migration of GeoServer with PostGIS parameters changes without this error? Is there any solution for this error?

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information

    Good Idea. I turn on logs at production level configuration and did not doscover any special errors - only warnings for any opened layer like this: WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find property. Full log in link above

    I have migrated my GeoServer + PostGIS to another machine. In terms of geoserver I start new instance of GeoServer and copied all content to data_dir. After this operation I have observed that some GeoServer functionalities did not work properly i.e. pages with layer, layer preview and Server status did not open. I have access to workspaces and stores pages but when I try to change PostGIS connection parameters in PostGIS stores I get following error:


    Error saving data store:Failed to upgrade lock from read to write state, please re-try the configuration operation


    PostGIS connection parameters are correct and working well.

    In log I just find only three repeated warnings for all opened layers:


    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=topojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/x-protobuftype=mapbox-vector' for
    component: [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale:
    null, style: null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,170 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=geojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null


    How do I make this kind of migration of GeoServer with PostGIS parameters changes without this error? Is there any solution for this error?

    I have migrated my GeoServer + PostGIS to another machine. In terms of geoserver I start new instance of GeoServer and copied all content to data_dir. After this operation I have observed that some GeoServer functionalities did not work properly i.e. pages with layer, layer preview and Server status did not open. I have access to workspaces and stores pages but when I try to change PostGIS connection parameters in PostGIS stores I get following error:


    Error saving data store:Failed to upgrade lock from read to write state, please re-try the configuration operation


    PostGIS connection parameters are correct and working well.

    In log I just find only three repeated warnings for all opened layers:


    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=topojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,169 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/x-protobuftype=mapbox-vector' for
    component: [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale:
    null, style: null

    2019-01-09 20:56:32,170 WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find
    property: 'format.wms.application/jsontype=geojson' for component:
    [class=org.geoserver.web.demo.MapPreviewPage]. Locale: null, style:
    null


    How do I make this kind of migration of GeoServer with PostGIS parameters changes without this error? Is there any solution for this error?

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information

    Good Idea. I turn on logs at production level configuration and did not doscover any special errors - only warnings for any opened layer like this: WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find property. Full log in link above

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information

    Good Idea. I turn on logs at production level configuration and did not doscover any special errors - only warnings for any opened layer like this: WARN [geoserver.web] - Unable to find property. Full log in link above

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    What type of machine are you using? Did you make sure the user running geoserver has full access to the data directory?

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    It is Ubuntu Server 16.04. User has access. Generally problem was resolved itself after several sets of trials and errors. I suppose that specific sequence of store modification give a positive effect. I am still observering this instance of GeoServer in terms of slowing down after migration and described problems.

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information

    turn logging up to debug and see what the error message is and then edit your question with all of this information


    What is a Content Management System (CMS)?

    CMS became a buzz word in the web development industry because of its benefits.

    CMS stands for Content Management System. It is a term and has not been endorsed with a solid definition. A CMS can have multiple meanings depending on the scenarios and the person's or project objectives.

    To add to the confusion, an organization named AIIM (Association for Information and Image Management) claimed the acronym ECM (Enterprise Content Management) and WCM (Web Content Management) as their creation and came up with their own definition that suites their organization's services. AIIM changed their definition of ECM a few times and submitted their definitions to Wikipedia, which is now published.

    At the time of this writing, for most scenarios, when someone in the web development industry is talking about CMS (Content Management System), or ECMS (Enterprise Content Management System), he / she is more likely referring to either the first or second definition below.

    In this article, I'll put the emphasis on the common CMS definitions and not the one created by AIIM. The detail of the purpose, use, and examples are all in the area of the commonly used definition.

    Content Management System (CMS) common definition #1

    The definition of a CMS is an application (more likely web-based), that provides capabilities for multiple users with different permission levels to manage (all or a section of) content, data or information of a website project, or internet / intranet application.

    Managing content refers to creating, editing, archiving, publishing, collaborating on, reporting, distributing website content, data and information.

    An example of a CMS application is a Web Application that provides the following administration, control panel or website management functionalities:

    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive web pages
    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive articles
    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive press releases
    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive blogs
    • Add / Edit events into an Event Calendar
    • Add / Edit Inventory (products), description, product specifications, prices, photos, etc.
    • Enter, Edit, or View orders and print packing slips and invoices
    • View reports and statistics site data
    • Create and Edit system users which have different permission levels to different section(s) of the above administration

    Content Management System definition #2

    (This definition is similar to the definition of WCM (Web Content Management System) which is set forth by AIIM. )

    In this definition, when someone refers to CMS, he / she is referring to a web application that provides capabilities for multiple users with different permission levels to manage web page (content) without the need to have HTML knowledge.

    Below is an example of a simple CMS Application which provides web page editing capabilities:

    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive web pages
    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive articles
    • Create, Edit, Publish, Archive press releases

    Enterprise Content Management System (ECM / ECMS)

    When someone refers to Enterprise Content Management System (ECM / ECMS), he / she may be talking about any of the following definitions:

    1. A Content Management System (CMS) application with a credible track record designed to serve and support the needs of a large size organization or a large scale Content Management System.

    2. An application with multiple functionalities that provides a full-scale Content Management System tailored for a company's organization and processes.

    3. An application that provides the tools and capabilities to manage, store, and deliver content and documents tailored for a company's internal organization, workflow and processes. (AIIM's definition in brief)

    Content Management System (CMS) Purpose

    The main purpose of a Content Management System (relating to web) is to provide the capability for multiple users with different permission levels to manage a website or a section of the content.

    For example, you can take a website which has Articles, Blogs, Press Releases, Store, Events and assign each section or a part of a section to user(s) to create, edit, and archive.

    Content Management System (CMS) Pitfalls and Misconceptions

    1. One of the largest misconceptions about CMS is that it is the main ingredient for a website's success. That is completely untrue. A CMS should make it easy for a website owner or webmaster(s) to manage and distribute content, but a website's success has nothing to do with CMS it has to do with the quality of content, quality of services, marketing and many other factors that are outside of the realm of this article.

    2. The second misconception about CMS is that it will eliminate a need for hiring a web developer or programmer to make changes to a website. That is not true in many cases.

    Most CMS systems especially the Open Source CMS systems that are bloated to cover every possible functionality (whether needed or not) will require an experienced web programmer to make any customizations for tailoring to one's business objectives and for maintaining a large scale project.

    A very good example of a bloated open source CMS system is Drupal. Most end-users are told that Drupal is the best and most cost effective solution for any website. That is completely untrue. It requires a web programmer to setup and customize a Drupal project, and due to its complexity and bloated nature, it will require an experienced webmaster or web developer to maintain and manage a Drupal site.

    So, if you are a small business and the cost is a factor in developing your website, you may consider a CMS application that does not require a substantial number of programming hours for set up and on-going maintenance.

    3. One of the important ingredients for a website's success is to build a brand that users can remember, revisit and tell their friends.

    Unfortunately, most CMS systems are written by programmers. Programmers usually do not have the design, branding and usability experience. That is why most of the out-of-the-box open source CMS sites that have not been customized have no branding and personality.

    Research for this article was completed November 15, 2010 information may change.


    Bernard Kohan is a mobile app and web application development and technology analyst expert. He is available to discuss any issues or questions you have about web development and the best choices for your company or project.

    Bernard can be reached at
    858-410-1500

    Web App Estimator

    Select and unselect modules such CMS or eCommerce for your web application and watch the cost update in real time.


    Web Application with data editing capabilities by users stored in Geoserver - Geographic Information Systems

    Decision making for fisheries policy-making, planning and management relies largely on processed information, not raw data. Data have to be interpreted before they can be utilised. The volume of raw primary data is often very large, and so can only be used effectively if held in a Data Base Management System (DBMS). The functions of a DBMS are:

    7.2 DATABASE DESIGN

    7.2.1 Methodology

    Information technology is diverse and changing rapidly, so it is important to seek the most up-to-date advice before selecting a system or developing an application.

    Ideally, database developers should be involved in not just the data management, but also the sampling system. Although fisheries experts may be aware of computer technology, they should not be concerned with actual implementation of the database system. Likewise, computer professionals should not be concerned with developing a fishery sampling system. However, when the two activities occur at the same time, each can complement the other to mutual benefit, increasing the probability of a project's success.

    A decentralised database design should be considered to make database management and data validation easier. In a distributed system, data are entered and validated locally, but linked with other databases for analysis. Data can be made accessible for analysis through a centralised database, preferably housed at a national institution.

    When considering the approach to take for creating a new data collection system, there are various options available. These include:

    · Taking a commercially available software and adapting it to new requirements

    · Piecing together a system with different software components

    · Creating a custom system from scratch.

    Customised database systems rely on the presence and continuing involvement of the system developers. Contingency plans should be established to minimise the risk of system failure should these developers become unavailable. In all cases, the system should be fully documented. However, custom systems are often still better than on-site adaptation of a commercially available system, as significant modifications to an existing system can sometimes cripple their intended function. Although adapting a system has lower initial costs, it can sometimes prove more costly in the end because of increased maintenance requirements.

    An important benefit of custom development is that it can be configured to match closely the data sampling methodology, so the system will be more efficient and easily accepted. Another possible benefit is that the database design can also be used as a tool to assist the development of the data collection programme. If the two development phases occur simultaneously, the use of common terminology (i.e. species identification, sampling techniques) and tools (i.e. data flow diagrams, task analysis) can be mutually beneficial to the two systems.

    Depending on the quantity of data and the availability of resources, commercial desktop applications for database development can have long-term limitations. For larger fisheries, they should only be used for initiating data collection programmes and prototyping (i.e. scenarios, storyboards). The limits of these tools for large-scale sampling should be realised and the data collection methodology will eventually require migration into a more formal and robust system. Benefits from prototyping may include better identification of data flows and system components, which can assist integration of the data collection methodology and data storage design.

    An established software development life cycle should be used when designing and developing a database system (Fig. 7.1). Failing to follow standard software development methodology is a major contributing factor to system failure or severe cost and schedule overruns.

    7.2.2 Human-computer interface

    Important to the overall acceptability of DBMS is the Human-Computer Interface (HCI). Users of the DBMS (i.e. data encoders, scientists, decision-makers and policy planners) should be involved in the development of the HCI. The following are some basic principles that may be employed to develop effective HCI interfaces:

    · Automated procedures to guide users on how to proceed when using the system

    · Use of graphical structures such as command-buttons in the HCI, preferably with commonly applied icons, to facilitate access to frequently used functions

    · Use of menus to list commands

    · Readily accessible "Help" keys or a command-button to access on-line help messages.

    7.2.3 Computerised documentation

    On-line help, documentation, tutorials and training are contributing factors to the sustainability of a database. Special consideration should be placed on the development of these components within the system. Preferably, the development of these components should proceed in parallel with the development of the software/user-interfaces. However, this does not eliminate the need for hard copies of the documentation.

    7.2.4 Data entry

    When creating or modifying a data entry system, it is often necessary to incorporate historical data that has been stored on non-computer media. In such cases, all possible methods of bulk data conversion (scanning, inexpensive local labour, etc.) should be considered for conversion to computer-compatible form. This allows for data integration, which is necessary for proper analysis.

    Additionally, an 'Import' function should be available to incorporate data commonly held in alternative formats (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet). This function should ensure data integrity and quality is maintained.

    When applicable, special structures or software links should be developed to facilitate retrieval of data from other computer sources such as electronic logbooks. Again, care should be taken that data integrity is maintained and data are properly validated.

    Data validation can be implemented at various levels including data collection, compilation, data entry to a DBMS, data processing and analysis. Data entry user-interfaces should be structured to enforce sets of rules applied to validate inputs.

    7.2.5 Data processing

    A feature of DBMS technology, which should be exploited when developing or modifying a data collection system, is the capability of imbedding control and processing within the database using stored procedures and queries. This approach has the advantages of:

    Whenever possible, parameters should be used to make the system more flexible. Parameters are easily changed values that alter the structure and function of the system. Often, requirements change over the life of a system, and allowing expansion and modification without major configuration changes can preserve the viability of the data collection system.

    7.2.6 Data reporting

    Flexibility when producing reports from data is important. Often, the potential uses of data are not fully recognised before a system is operational. To allow ease of retrieval/reporting helps prevent unnecessary secondary modifications to a system.

    To facilitate report flexibility, a general-purpose 'export' function should be provided. Features that this function should have are:

    7.2.7 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    It is useful to present spatial data in graphical form. Presenting geo-referenced data graphically offers the advantage of allowing the view of the data relative to other geographical data like positions of rivers, mangroves, reefs or other features that are known to have an effect to fisheries production. Commercially available systems should be able to access geo-referenced data within the DBMS, however data management remains the responsibility of the DBMS.

    7.3 DATA MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE

    7.3.1 Commitment

    In order to sustain the use of the database, there is the need for a long-term commitment to support the data management application. Adequate personnel should be available not only for routine operation, but also to modify the system as the need arises. Failure to provide such support is very likely to result in a gradual loss of system capabilities and ultimately may contribute to a collapse of the system.

    7.3.2 Archives

    The database should be backed up regularly. The system should always be prepared for major hardware or software failures and data loss. Procedures should be made as simple as possible to ensure that backups are regularly made.

    As the database evolves with time and changes in information technology occur, data archiving is essential to allow retrieval of historical data stored in former structure or design. Archiving of data should be done using a non-volatile media (e.g. CD-ROM) and system independent data format.

    7.3.3 Design re-evaluation

    As a result of established feedback mechanisms and in order to ensure that the data management system is meeting its objectives (i.e. complying with the needs of clients) periodic evaluations should be undertaken. Representatives of those using the system should be present.

    A continuing programme of design evaluation is recommended to ensure that the system takes advantage of recent developments in information technology. Special attention should be given to establish procedures for upgrading archived data so that data in the old format will continue to be accessible.

    7.4 DATA ACCESS AND DISSEMINATION

    7.4.1 Data ownership and control

    The state or agency where the data originated is the main owner of the data. Recognising that data are a resource and hence have values, economic or otherwise, the Government should exercise its right to maintain, secure and control access.

    Control is the limit placed on the ability of an individual, a group of individuals, organisations or another state to have partial or full access to the data contained on a database. Partial data access is the inability to do any of the following: (i) view all of the data entered and stored by the system, (ii) append data, (iii) edit data, (iv) copy data, or (v) distribute/share the data by any means. Controls should be used to limit access in a manner consistent with any confidentiality requirements and protect the data from unauthorised changes. Of greatest importance is the protection of primary data from accidental corruption. The master copy of data must always be 'write protected'. However, although control and security are important, they should not hinder legitimate access. In particular, the security and control features of the DBMS should never hinder state-recognised scientific institutions from accessing data for resource management research.

    Special provisions should be made in the DBMS to facilitate sharing of the data with other states and regional organisations as appropriate. The UN Fish Stocks Agreement requires states to exchange information for managing straddling and highly migratory fish stocks. Data exchange is facilitated if national standards and classifications share a common regional or inter-regional set of statistical standards, most specially at higher aggregating levels.

    7.4.2 Communication networks

    Developments in communications technology open a new arena of possibilities with regard to the distribution of data. Whenever possible and appropriate, the DBMS design should consider structures that will facilitate distribution, or allow direct access of the data from remote locations.

    7.4.3 Computerised publication

    Development of software for tutorials, demonstrations and related documents (e.g. on-line help text, computer-based user guide) is essential to long-term viability of the database. These documents may reside locally or, preferably, nationally in a form allowing network access.

    The use of digital media should also be considered for disseminating statistics. For example, the Internet offers an inexpensive method to share information, allowing secure access to data and analytical results.


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